European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 218, Issue 6, pp 589–597 | Cite as

Two-step mass spectrometric approach for the identification of diketopiperazines in chicken essence

  • Yi-Hong Chen
  • Su-Er Liou
  • Chu-Chin Chen
Original Paper


Diketopiperazines (DKPs) have been found in a variety of foods and beverages that impart a metallic bitter taste. The presence of DKPs in chicken essence (CE) was first postulated by a two-step monitoring technique, with mass precursor ion scanning from the immonium ion of a specific amino acid first, followed by mass matching with a DKP database. The postulated DKPs were further verified by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis. It was found that this technique performed well, with about 20 DKPs tentatively identified. Proline was an important constituent of the DKPs in CE, together with other non-polar amino acids, such as glycine, alanine, valine, leucine/isoleucine and phenylalanine, which also showed great magnitude. Some proline-based DKPs in CE were quantified before and after thermal treatment at 130 °C for 1 h. The concentrations of the DKPs were determined not only by the relative ease of formation and the stability of the DKPs, but also by past thermal processings.


Diketopiperazine Cyclic dipeptide Chicken essence Protein hydrolysate Mass spectrometry 



Financial support for this study from the Ministry of Economic Affairs (92-EC-17-A-18-R7-0332), Taiwan, the Republic of China, is highly appreciated.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Industry Research and Development InstituteHsinchuRepublic of China

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