European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 218, Issue 4, pp 372–379 | Cite as

Non-structural carbohydrates in processed soft fried onion (Allium cepa L.)

  • K. KaackEmail author
  • L. P. Christensen
  • S. L. Hansen
  • K. Grevsen
Original Paper


The effects of curing, removal of top and root, peeling, storage of raw and peeled onion on the content of non-structural carbohydrates and the ability of onion to develop a brown colour were studied. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, 1-kestose, neokestose, nystose, 1F-β-d-fructofuranosylnystose and four unknown oligofructosides were quantified using high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Field drying affected the concentration of fructose only. Glucose, fructose and an unknown fructan decreased in concentration while the concentration of, e.g. 1-kestose, neokestose and nystose increased by removal of root and top of the onions when stored at 15 °C for one week. Peeling had minor influence on changes in non-structural carbohydrates. Storage of non-peeled (raw) onions at 5 °C and storage of mechanically damaged and peeled onion at 20 °C promoted fructan hydrolysis and browning of soft fried onion. Similar changes were produced by long-term storage of cultivars of common onion. Dry matter and fructose increased during storage of peeled onions at both 5 and 20 °C. The increase in fructose content during storage was due to a significantly decrease in the content of 1-kestose, neokestose, 1F-β-d-fructofuranosylnystose, an unknown fructan and total fructans. It was concluded that the missing ability of industrially processed onions to develop a brown colour may be overcome by storage of the peeled onions for a few hours or even overnight at 5 °C.


Common onion Shallot Processing Peeling Frying Storage Saccharides Oligofructosides 



We thank Mrs. Lisbeth Stage for excellent technical assistance.


  1. 1.
    Hansen SL (1998) Irish J Agric Food Res 37:61–67Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hansen SL (1999) Acta Agric Scand Sec B Soil Plant Sci 49:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Darbyshire B (1978) J Hort Sci 53:195–201Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Suzuki M, Cutliffe JA (1989) Can J Plant Sci 69:1327–1333Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Henry RJ, Darbyshire B (1980) Phytochemistry 6:1017–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shiomi N, Onodera S, Sakai H, Pollock CJ, Farrar JF (1997) New Phytol 136:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kahane R, Vialle Guerin E, Boukema I, Tzanoudakis D, Bellamy C, Chamaux C, Kik C (2001) Environ Exp Bot 45:7383CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pollock CJ (1986) New Phytol 104:1–25Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hildmann T, Ebneth M, Cortes HP, Sanchez Serrano JJ, Willmitzer L, Prat S (1992) Plant Cell 4:11571170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chao WS, Gu YQ, Pautot V, Bray EA, Walling LL (1999) Plant Physiol 120:979992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rickey TM, Belknap WR (1991) Plant Mol Biol 16:10091018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huberman M, Pressman E, Jaffe MJ (1993) Plant Cell Physiol 34:795801Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Miller AR, Dalmasso JP, Kretchman DW (1987) J Am Hort Sci 112:666–671Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moran PJ, Cipollini DF Jr (1999) J Phytopathol 147:313–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kaack K, Thybo AK, Christiansen J (2002) Potato research (in press)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Holik K (1987) Mechanizace Zemedestvi 37:304–305Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Timm EJ, Brown GK, Brook RC, Schulte NL, Burton CL (1991) Appl Eng Agric 7:571–576Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Moon GJ, Peterson CA, Peterson RL (1984) Can J Bot 62:2253–2259Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Campbell JM, Bauer LL, Fahey CC, Hogarth AJ, Wolf BW, Hunter DE (1997) J Agric Food Chem 45:3076–3082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jaime L, Martin Cabrejas MA, Molla E, Lopex Andreu FJ, Esteban RM (2001) J Agric Food Chem 49:982–988CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Henry RJ, Darbyshire B (1979) Plant Sci Lett 14:155–158Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marx SP, Nösberger J, Frehner M (1997) New Phytol 135:267–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marx SP, Nösberger J, Frehner M (1997) New Phytol 135:279–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    John JAS, Bonnett GD, Simpson RJ (1996) New Phytol 134:197–203Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shiomi N (1989) J Plant Physiol 134:151–155Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sørensen JN, Grevsen K (2001) J Hort Sci Biotech 76:501–506Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chatterton NJ, Harrison PA, Thornley WR, Bennett JH (1989) Plant Physiol Biochem 7:289–295Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hoebregs H (1997) J AOAC Int 80:1029–1037Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sims IM, Smouter H, Pollock CJ, Simpson RJ (1991) Plant Physiol Biochem Paris 29:257–267Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shiomi N, Onodera S, Chatterton NJ, Harrison PA (1991) Agric Biol Chem 55:1424–1428Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Smouter H, Simpson RJ (1993) Stud Plant Sci 1993:107–113Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bacon JSD (1957) Biochem J 67:5–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gorin N, Börcsök S (1980) Lebensm Wiss Technol 13:164–166Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rutherford PP, Whittle R (1982) J Hort Sci 57:349–356Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ernst MK, Chatterton NJ, Harrison PA, Matitschka G (1998) J Plant Physiol 153:53–60Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jaime L, Martinez F, Martin Cabrejas MA, Molla E, Lopez Andreu FJ, Waldron KW, Esteban RM (2001) J Sci Food Agric 8:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rutherford PP, Weston EW (1968) Phytochemistry 7:175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hansen SL (2001) Acta Agric Scand Sec B Soil Plant Sci 5:79–85Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Maw BW, Hung YC, Tollner EW, Smittle DA, Mullinex BG (1996) ASAE 39:633–637Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Williams LG, Franklin DF (1971) Trans ASAE 14:55–59Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Böttcher H (1973) Arch Gartenbau 21:5–19Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yoo KS, Pike LM (1995) Hort Sci 30:143Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Kaack
    • 1
    Email author
  • L. P. Christensen
    • 1
  • S. L. Hansen
    • 1
  • K. Grevsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Science, Research Centre AarslevDanish Institute of Agricultural SciencesAarslevDenmark

Personalised recommendations