Altunakar, B., Sahin, S. & Sumnu, G. Eur Food Res Technol (2004) 218: 318. doi:10.1007/s00217-003-0854-5
The effect of various starch types (amylomaize, corn, waxymaize, pregelatinized tapioca) on quality attributes (texture, moisture content, oil content, color, coating pick up, cooking yield, volume and porosity) of deep-fat fried chicken nuggets were studied. Chicken samples, 0.04 m in diameter and 0.015 m in thickness, taken from the breast portion, were coated with batters composed of a 3:5 solid to water ratio by immersion. The solid content of batter formulations contained equal amounts of corn and wheat flour, 5.0% starch, 1.0% salt and 0.5% leavening agent. As control, batter without starch addition, was used. Samples were fried at 180°C for 3, 6, 9 and 12 minutes. Crispness and oil content of chicken nuggets increased, whereas moisture content decreased with increasing frying time. Starch addition to the formulations increased crispness of the product significantly at the last stages of frying. The highest porosity and oil content was obtained when corn starch was used. Pregelatinized tapioca starch was found to provide a product with the lowest oil content, the highest moisture content, coating pick up and volume.