European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 217, Issue 3, pp 185–194 | Cite as

French fries with less than 100 μg/kg acrylamide. A collaboration between cooks and analysts

  • Koni GrobEmail author
  • Maurus Biedermann
  • Sandra Biedermann-Brem
  • Anja Noti
  • Daniel Imhof
  • Thomas Amrein
  • Anton Pfefferle
  • Diego Bazzocco
Original Paper


In collaboration with cooking experts, the preparation of French fries in oil and in ovens was optimized, aiming at optimum culinary quality combined with a minimum acrylamide content. French fries with 40–70 μg/kg acrylamide were consistently produced, i.e. with 5–10 times less acrylamide than currently normal. The raw potato should contain little reducing sugars, i.e. be of a suitable cultivar, and storage at temperatures below about 10 °C must be avoided. After cutting and elimination of the fines, the potato is immersed in standing cold or boiler-warm water for some 15 min in order to extract asparagine and sugars from the surface without washing out the starch. Pre-frying in oil (ca. 140 °C for 2.5 min) improves crispiness. Frying should occur at an initial oil temperature of about 170 °C, adding some 100 g potato/l oil. Since acrylamide formation increases exponentially towards the end of the process, the most important factor to keep acrylamide contents low is the determination of the proper end point of the frying process. French fries should be crispy with slight browning of the tips to achieve the typical flavor, but without general browning. Preparation in the oven, starting from frozen prefabricates, requires temperatures of around 190 °C or 220 °C, depending on whether or not the air is circulated. The proper determination of the end point is again the most critical step.


Acrylamide French fries Potatoes of low reducing sugar 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koni Grob
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maurus Biedermann
    • 1
  • Sandra Biedermann-Brem
    • 1
  • Anja Noti
    • 1
  • Daniel Imhof
    • 1
  • Thomas Amrein
    • 1
  • Anton Pfefferle
    • 2
  • Diego Bazzocco
    • 2
  1. 1.Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich ZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Belvoirpark ZürichSchool of Hotel Management·HFZurichSwitzerland

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