Oil composition of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruit-seeds
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Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seeds were extracted with chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) and the amount of total lipid was 28.4% of seed weight. The major fatty acid was petroselinic acid (65.7% of the total fatty acid methyl esters) followed by linoleic acid. Chromatography on a silica column with solvent of increasing polarity yielded 93.0% neutral lipids, 4.14% glycolipids, and 1.57% phospholipids. Thin-layer chromatography on silica gel was used to obtain major neutral lipid subclasses. Fatty acid profile of neutral lipid subclasses, triacylglycerols, and sterol content were determined using gas-liquid chromatography. Six triacylglycerol molecular species were detected but one component (C54:3) corresponding to tripetroselinin, and/or dipetroselinoyl oleoyl glycerol comprised more than 50% of the total triacylglycerols. Sterol content was estimated to be at a high level (5186 µg g–1 oil). Stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol, and campesterol were found to be the sterol markers. Phospholipid subclasses were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on a silica column by gradient elution from isooctane/2-propanol (6:8, v/v) to isooctane/2-propanol/water (6:8:0.6, v/v/v) with detection at 205 nm. The major individual phospholipid subclasses were phosphatidylcholine followed by phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylserine.
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