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Immunoassays (IA) use the specific antigen antibody complexation for analytical purposes. Radioimmunoassays (RIA), fluorescence immunoassays (FIA) and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are well established in clinical diagnostics. For the development of hand-held devices which can be used for point of care measurements, electrochemical immunoassays are promising alternatives to existing immunochemical tests. Moreover, for opaque or optically dense matrices electrochemical methods are superior. Potentiometric, capacitive and amperometric transducers have been applied for direct and indirect electrochemical immunoassays. However, due to their fast detection, broad linear range and low detection limit, amperometric transducers are preferred. Competitive and non-competitive amperometric immunoassays have been developed with redox compounds or enzymes as labels.
This review will give an overview of the most frequently applied principles in electrochemical immunoassays. The potential of an indirect competitive amperometric immunoassay for the determination of creatinine within nanomolar range and the circumvention of the most serious problem in electrochemical immunoassays, namely regeneration, will be discussed.
KeywordsDense Matrice Enzyme Immunoassay Specific Antigen Electrochemical Method Care Measurement
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