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Smartphone coupled with paper-based chemical sensor for on-site determination of iron(III) in environmental and biological samples

  • Kamlesh ShrivasEmail author
  • Monisha
  • Tushar Kant
  • Indrapal Karbhal
  • Ramsingh Kurrey
  • Bhuneshwari Sahu
  • Deepak Sinha
  • Goutam Kumar Patra
  • Manas Kanti Deb
  • Shamsh Pervez
Research Paper

Abstract

We report a smartphone–paper-based sensor impregnated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide modified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs/CTAB) for determination of Fe3+ in water and blood plasma samples. The methodology for determination of Fe3+ is based on the change in signal intensity of AgNPs/CTAB fabricated on a paper substrate after the deposition of analyte, using a smartphone followed by processing with ImageJ software. The mechanism of sensing for detection and determination of Fe3+ is based on the discoloration of AgNPs which impregnated the paper substrate. The discoloration is attributed to the electron transfer reaction taking place on the surface of NPs in the presence of CTAB. Fe3+ was determined when the paper was impregnated with 1 mM AgNPs for 5 min of reaction time and the substrate was kept under acidic conditions. The linear range for determination of total iron in terms of Fe3+ was 50–900 μg L−1 with a limit of determination (LOD) of 20 μg L−1 and coefficient of variation (CV) of 3.2%. The good relative recovery of 91.3–95.0% and interference studies showed the selectivity of the method for determination of total iron in water and blood plasma samples. Smartphone–paper-based sensors have advantages of simplicity, rapidity, user-friendliness, low cost, and miniaturization of the method for on-site determination of total iron compared to methods that require sophisticated analytical instruments.

Graphical abstract

Smartphone–paper-based sensor with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide modified silver nanoparticles for determination of Fe3+ in water and blood plasma samples.

Keywords

Smartphone Paper sensor AgNPs/CTAB ImageJ software Fe3 + Water and blood samples 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), New Delhi for awarding Kamlesh Shrivas as Extra Mural Research Project (File No: EMR/2016/005813).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

216_2019_2385_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (756 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 321 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kamlesh Shrivas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Monisha
    • 1
  • Tushar Kant
    • 1
  • Indrapal Karbhal
    • 1
  • Ramsingh Kurrey
    • 1
  • Bhuneshwari Sahu
    • 1
  • Deepak Sinha
    • 2
  • Goutam Kumar Patra
    • 3
  • Manas Kanti Deb
    • 1
  • Shamsh Pervez
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Studies in ChemistryPt. Ravishanakar Shukla UniversityRaipurIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryGovernment Nagarjuna Post Graduate College of ScienceRaipurIndia
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryGuru Ghasidas VishwavidyalayaBilaspurIndia

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