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Development of a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with magnetic dispersive microsolid phase extraction for determination of triazines in wastewater samples

  • Karina Aguilar-Arteaga
  • Cynthia Hernández-Mera
  • Luis Díaz-Batalla
  • Araceli Castañeda-OvandoEmail author
  • Alida Elizabeth Cruz-Pérez
  • Enrique Barrado-Esteban
  • Manuel Carrillo-Cárdenas
Research Paper
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

The combination of two microextraction techniques (dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction [DLLME] and magnetic dispersive microsolid phase extraction [MDMSPE]) was developed and reported for atrazine and simazine preconcentration from wastewater samples. The proposal methodology involved the use of magnetite supports functionalized with different alkyl or phenyl groups. The magnetic adsorbents were synthesized by the solvothermal method assisted by microwave, characterized, and used in the sample preconcentration of atrazine and simazine. The method validation included parameters such as the wastewater matrix effect, repeatability, and recovery. The analyte separation and quantification were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-DAD). Parameters, such as the polarity and mass of magnetic solids and pH, were evaluated to provide better extraction performance. The highest recoveries (> 95%) were obtained with 50 mg of the phenyl group support (CS2) at pH 5, using 5 mL of the sample and carbon tetrachloride and methanol, as extraction and dispersive solvents, respectively. The lowest limits of detection (LOD) achieved were 13.16 and 13.86 ng L−1, and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were 43.89 and 46.19 ng L−1 for simazine and atrazine, respectively, with repeatability (expressed as %RSD) below 5% in all cases. The developed method is simple, easy, and low cost for the analysis of two herbicides potentially dangerous for environmental and human health.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Coupled microextraction techniques Magnetic adsorbents Triazines Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction Magnetic dispersive microsolid phase extraction 

Notes

Acknowledgments

K. Aguilar-Arteaga, A. Castañeda-Ovando, and A.E. Cruz-Pérez thank Sistema Nacional de Investigadores for the stipend received. All authors gratefully acknowledge the Centro de Investigación en Ciencia y Tecnología Aplicada de Tabasco for the HRTEM analysis and the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (Mexico) for the project financing [Project number CB-2013-220163].

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karina Aguilar-Arteaga
    • 1
  • Cynthia Hernández-Mera
    • 1
  • Luis Díaz-Batalla
    • 1
  • Araceli Castañeda-Ovando
    • 2
    Email author
  • Alida Elizabeth Cruz-Pérez
    • 3
  • Enrique Barrado-Esteban
    • 4
  • Manuel Carrillo-Cárdenas
    • 5
  1. 1.Agroindustry EngineeringUniversidad Politécnica de Francisco I. MaderoTepatepecMexico
  2. 2.Chemistry DepartmentUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de HidalgoMineral de la ReformaMexico
  3. 3.Academic Division of Engineering and ArchitectureUniversidad Juárez Autónoma de TabascoVillahermosaMexico
  4. 4.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of Valladolid, Campus Miguel DelibesValladolidSpain
  5. 5.Universidad Politécnica de Huejutla. Energy EngineeringHuejutla de ReyesMexico

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