Simultaneous analysis of Pb2+ and Cd2+ at graphene/bismuth nanocomposite film-modified pencil graphite electrode using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry

  • H. Dilara KiliçEmail author
  • Hüseyin Kizil
Research Paper


A graphene/bismuth nanocomposite film-modified pencil graphite electrode was quickly prepared for the simultaneous analysis of cadmium and lead heavy metal ions by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The pencil graphite electrode’s surface was directly modified from graphite to graphene with cyclic voltammetry method in a single step by performing potential cycling between − 0.9 and − 1.4 V in 0.2 mol L−1 NaOH modifying solution. A linear relationship between peak current and concentration was obtained in the range between 5–100 μg L−1 for both Cd2+ and Pb2+, with detection limits of 0.12 μg L−1 for Cd2+ and 0.29 μg L−1 for Pb2+. The developed electrode with the proposed method has been applied to a Canadian-certified reference water sample and tap water sample with reliable results. For tap water sample, the obtained results were in a good agreement with the results provided by AAS.

Graphical abstract


Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry Electrochemically coated graphene Pencil graphite electrode Lead and cadmium analysis 



Koray Bahadır DÖNMEZ is gratefully acknowledged for his help in this study. The authors also acknowledge Tolga ÖZCAN from Mir Unique Solutions for his help with the SEM images.

Funding information

This research was financially supported by Mir Unique Solutions.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

216_2019_2193_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (328 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 327 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nano-Science & Nano-EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Materials & Chemical Research DepartmentMir Araştırma ve Geliştirme A.S.IstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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