Vibrational extraction QuEChERS for analysis of antiparasitic agents in fish by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

  • Lenise Guimarães de OliveiraEmail author
  • Abilasha Ramkumar
  • Mary Moloney
  • Márcia Helena Scherer Kurz
  • Fábio Ferreira Gonçalves
  • Osmar Damian Prestes
  • Martin Danaher
Research Paper


A method was developed for the analysis of 22 antiparasitic residues belonging to the benzoylurea, organophosphate, pyrimidinamine, pyrethrin and pyrethroid classes in salmon by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile–water as the extraction solvent with use of a vibrational shaking apparatus with a ceramic homogenizer. After extraction, the acetonitrile extracts were cleaned up by incubation at low temperature (-20 °C, 1 h) to remove fat, followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction using Z-Sep+ and primary–secondary amine as sorbents. Validation was performed following the 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11813/2017 guidelines. The trueness of the method ranged from 87% to 121% and precision ranged from 4.1% to 23.7%, with the exception of cyphenothrin, dicyclanil and azamethiphos. The method developed is particularly advantageous because the use of a vibrational shaker allows unattended extraction of samples and eliminates a laborious tissue disruption step, which increases sample throughput in the laboratory. The sample preparation and chromatographic separations can be performed in 5 and 4 h, respectively, for 36 samples.

Graphical abstract


Antiparasitic drug residues Fish Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry Dispersive solid-phase extraction Vibrational extraction 



This research was funded by the CAPES PDSE scholarship programme (grant no. 88881.134557/2016-01). All the instrumentation and facilities were funded by Teagasc Food Research Centre (Ireland).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

216_2019_2062_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (519 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 519 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lenise Guimarães de Oliveira
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Abilasha Ramkumar
    • 1
  • Mary Moloney
    • 1
  • Márcia Helena Scherer Kurz
    • 2
  • Fábio Ferreira Gonçalves
    • 2
  • Osmar Damian Prestes
    • 3
  • Martin Danaher
    • 2
  1. 1.Food Safety DepartmentTeagasc Food Research CentreDublin 15Ireland
  2. 2.Laboratory for Analysis of Residues and Contaminants, Post-graduate Program in Technological and Environmental Chemistry, Chemistry and Food SchoolFederal University of Rio GrandeSanto Antônio da PatrulhaBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratory of Pesticides Residue Analysis, Chemistry DepartmentFederal University of Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil

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