Determination of morpholinium ionic liquid cations in environmental water samples: development of solid-phase extraction method and ion chromatography

  • Xue Zhang
  • Hong YuEmail author
  • Ya-qi Cai


An ion chromatography and solid-phase extraction method has been applied for the separation and detection of morpholinium cations in environmental water samples. The water samples were purified and enriched by a UF-SCX sulfonic acid extraction column and eluted with 0.5 mol L−1 phosphoric acid/sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution/55% methanol. The target compounds were separated on a carboxylic acid cation exchange column with 5.0 mmol L−1 methane sulfonic acid/2% acetonitrile as the mobile phase and direct conductivity detection. The method has been successfully applied to extract morpholinium cations from spiked water samples of Songhua River, Hulan River, East Lake, and Mopanshan Reservoir in China with the recoveries ranging from 75.0% to 98.3%. The relative standard deviations of intraday precision and interday precision are 2.1% and 5.9% or less, respectively. Using this method it is possible to preconcentrate water samples to 0.01–0.04 mg L−1. The results show that the method is applicable to detection of morpholinium ionic liquid cations in environmental water samples and provides a new approach for monitoring ionic liquids in environmental water.

Graphical abstract

The analysis procedure of morpholinium ionic liquids in environmental water samples.


Ion chromatography Solid-phase extraction Morpholinium cations Environmental water Ionic liquids 



This work was supported by State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (KF2017–21) and the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province (Grant No. B201307).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Heilongjiang Province Key Laboratory of Photochemical Biomaterials and Energy Storage Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringHarbin Normal UniversityHarbinChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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