A water-soluble fluorescent probe for detecting creatinine in totally aqueous media and imaging exogenous creatinine in living cells
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The design of vigorous tools for creatinine determination is extremely important in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. In the study, we examine a robust fluorescent turn-on probe (NCP-Pd) for creatinine detection in a completely aqueous solution based on the metal palladium-catalyzed reaction. In the presence of creatinine, the NCP-Pd dissociates and subsequently restores the fluorescence due to elimination of the heavy atom quenching effect and prevention of the photoinduced electron transfer effect. The probe NCP-Pd displays excellent detecting performance with respect to creatinine such as good water solubility, high selectivity, and a low detection limit (0.16 μM). Additionally, in order to ensure its clinical application, this probe is operated in blood serum samples for detecting creatinine and compared with a commercial clinical method. The results indicate an extremely high agreement with the commercial clinical method. Furthermore, the results confirm that the probe NCP-Pd exhibits satisfactory cell permeability and low cytotoxicity and can detect creatinine in L929 and HCT116 cells. The study provides a potential application for detecting creatinine and conducting pathological research on creatinine-involved diseases.
KeywordsFluorescent probe Creatinine Blood Living cells Imaging
This work was supported by the National Sciences Foundation of China (21503043, 21365004, 81560713), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi (2018GXNSFAA294044, 2018GXNSFAA281136, 2017GXNSFBA198026, 2015jjCA20003), Specific Research Project of Guangxi for Research Bases and Talents (AD18126005), the Scientific Research Fund of Guangxi Education Department (2013ZD019), the Basic Ability Enhancement Program for Young and Middle-aged Teachers of Guangxi (2018KY0168), and the Xiangsihu Young Scholars Innovative Research Team of Guangxi University for Nationalities and Innovation Project of Guangxi Graduate Education (gxun-chxzs2018060).
Compliance with ethical standards
Patient sera were collected in accordance with the code of conduct of research with human material in China. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee at the hospital of Guangxi University for Nationalities. Informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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