Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 411, Issue 11, pp 2301–2315 | Cite as

Advances in chemometric control of commercial diesel adulteration by kerosene using IR spectroscopy

  • Heloise O. M. A. MouraEmail author
  • Anne B. F. Câmara
  • Marfran C. D. Santos
  • Camilo L. M. Morais
  • Leomir A. S. de Lima
  • Kássio M. G. Lima
  • Luciene S. de CarvalhoEmail author
Research Paper


Adulteration is a recurrent issue found in fuel screening. Commercial diesel contamination by kerosene is highly difficult to be detected via physicochemical methods applied in market. Although the contamination may affect diesel quality and storage stability, there is a lack of efficient methodologies for this evaluation. This paper assessed the use of IR spectroscopies (MIR and NIR) coupled with partial least squares (PLS) regression, support vector machine regression (SVR), and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) calibration models for quantifying and identifying the presence of kerosene adulterant in commercial diesel. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA), successive projections algorithm (SPA), and genetic algorithm (GA) tools coupled to linear discriminant analysis were used to observe the degradation behavior of 60 samples of pure and kerosene-added diesel fuel in different concentrations over 60 days of storage. Physicochemical properties of commercial diesel with 15% kerosene remained within conformity with Brazilian screening specifications; in addition, specified tests were not able to identify changes in the blends’ performance over time. By using multivariate classification, the samples of pure and contaminated fuel were accurately classified by aging level into two well-defined groups, and some spectral features related to fuel degradation products were detected. PLS and SVR were accurate to quantify kerosene in the 2.5–40% (v/v) range, reaching RMSEC < 2.59% and RMSEP < 5.56%, with high correlation between real and predicted concentrations. MCR-ALS with correlation constraint was able to identify and recover the spectral profile of commercial diesel and kerosene adulterant from the IR spectra of contaminated blends.


Diesel fuel Adulteration Kerosene Multivariate analysis Storage stability 


Funding information

This research received a financial support from the Post-Graduate Chemistry Program PPGQ/UFRN, the Energetic Technologies Laboratory (LTEN), the Biological Chemistry and Chemometrics Group, and the CAPES and CNPQ – Brazil.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

216_2019_1671_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (4.5 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 4.51 mb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heloise O. M. A. Moura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anne B. F. Câmara
    • 1
  • Marfran C. D. Santos
    • 1
  • Camilo L. M. Morais
    • 2
  • Leomir A. S. de Lima
    • 1
  • Kássio M. G. Lima
    • 1
  • Luciene S. de Carvalho
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Post-Graduation Program in ChemistryFederal University of Rio Grande do NorteNatalBrazil
  2. 2.School of Pharmacy and Biomedical SciencesUniversity of Central LancashirePrestonUK

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