A double-functionalized polymeric ionic liquid used as solid-phase microextraction coating for efficient aromatic amine extraction and detection with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber based on a new polymeric ionic liquid was prepared for the extraction of trace aromatic amines in water and their detection by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The newly designed polymeric ionic liquid with two functional groups (benzene ring and ether group) was synthesized and fixed on stainless steel wire to effectively extract aromatic amines. Parameters that affect the extraction efficiency of the SPME fiber (extraction temperature, extraction time, alkali concentration, and salt concentration) were optimized to establish a headspace SPME–GC–MS method. The correlation coefficients were 0.996 or greater for concentration of the aromatic amines ranging from 0.01 to 10 μg mL-1. In addition, the limits of detection for the new fiber are as low as 0.67 ng mL-1, which is lower than that obtained with polyacrylate. The relative standard deviations of five consecutive extractions for the solution spiked at 1 μg mL-1 by the same fiber were all below 8.3%, and the interfiber relative standard deviations for the solution spiked at the same concentration ranged from 8.9% to 15.2%. Furthermore, long lifetime and good solvent resistance are exhibited by the fiber. Finally, satisfactory relative recovery in the range from 85.3% to 101.9 % was achieved for two environmental water samples.
KeywordsSolid-phase microextraction Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry Coating Polymeric ionic liquid Aromatic amines
The authors appreciate the financial support of Sichuan Science and Technology Program (grant number 2017SZ0013).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- 2.Shelke M, Sanghi S, Asthana A, Lamba S, Sharma M. Fast separation and sensitive detection of carcinogenic aromatic amines by reversed-phase μ-liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1089(1–2):52–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.06.029.Google Scholar
- 8.European Commission. Commission Directive 2007/19CE of 30 March 2007 amending Directive 2002/72/EC relating to plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food and Council Directive 85/572/EEC laying down the list of simulants to beused for testing migration of constituents of plastic materials and articles intended to come intocontact with foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union L. 2007;91:17–36.Google Scholar
- 9.Arthur CL, Pawliszyn J. Solid phase microextraction with thermal desorption using fused silica optical fibers. Anal Chem. 1990;62(19):2145–8.Google Scholar
- 10.Arthur CL, Killam LM, Motlagh S, Lim M, Potter DW, Pawliszyn J. Analysis of substituted benzene compounds in groundwater using solid-phase microextraction. Environ Sci Technol. 1992;26(5):979–83.Google Scholar
- 12.Portillo-Castillo OJ, Castro-Rios R, Chávez-Montes A, González-Horta A, Cavazos-Rocha N, Waksman de Torres HH, et al. Developments of solid-phase microextraction fiber coatings for environmental pharmaceutical and personal care products analysis. Rev Anal Chem. 2018;37(2):1–22. https://doi.org/10.1515/revac-2017-0018.Google Scholar
- 21.Seddon K, Stark A, Torres M. Influence of chloride, water, and organic solvents on the physical properties of ionic liquids. Pure Appl Chem. 2000;72(12):2275–87.Google Scholar
- 25.Muginova SM, Myasnikova DA, Kazarian SG, Shekhovtsova TN. Applications of ionic liquids for the development of optical chemical sensors and biosensors. Anal Sci. 2017;33:261–74.Google Scholar
- 27.Liu J-f, Li N, Jiang G-b, Liu J-m, Jönsson JÅ, Wen M-j. Disposable ionic liquid coating for headspace solid-phase microextraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes in paints followed by gas chromatography–flame ionization detection. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1066(1–2):27–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.01.024.Google Scholar
- 34.Bini R, Bortolini O, Chiappe C, Pieraccini D, Siciliano T. Development of cation/anion "interaction" scales for ionic liquids through ESI-MS measurements. J Phys Chem B. 2007;111(3):598–604.Google Scholar
- 35.He Y, Pohl J, Engel R, Rothman L, Thomas M. Preparation of ionic liquid based solid-phase microextraction fiber and its application to forensic determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human urine. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216(24):4824–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2009.04.028.Google Scholar
- 37.Sarafraz-Yazdi A, Vatani H. A solid phase microextraction coating based on ionic liquid sol-gel technique for determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene in water samples using gas chromatography flame ionization detector. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1300:104–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2013.03.039.Google Scholar
- 38.Buchholz KD, Pawliszyn J. Optimization of solid-phase microextraction conditions for determination of phenols. Anal Chem. 1994;66(1):160–7.Google Scholar
- 40.Sharma N, Jain A, Verma K. Headspace solid-phase microextraction and on-fibre derivatization of primary aromatic amines for their determination by pyrolysis to aryl isothiocyanates and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Methods. 2011;3(4):970–6. https://doi.org/10.1039/c0ay00745e.Google Scholar
- 41.Puente NW, Josephy PD. Analysis of the tidocaine metabolite 2,6-dimethylaniline in bovine and human milk. J Anal Toxicol. 2001;25:711–5.Google Scholar
- 42.Chen M, Yin Y, Tai C, Zhang Q, Liu J, Hu J, et al. Analyses of nitrobenzene, benzene and aniline in environmental water samples by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chin Sci Bull. 2006;51:1648–51.Google Scholar
- 43.DeBruin LS, Josephy PD, Pawliszyn JB. Solid-phase microextraction of monocyclic aromatic amines from biological fluids. Anal Chem. 1998;70:1986–92.Google Scholar