Nanofiber-integrated miniaturized systems: an intelligent platform for cancer diagnosis
Cancer diagnostic tools enabling screening, diagnosis, and effective disease management are essential elements to increase the survival rate of diagnosed patients. Low abundance of cancer markers present in large amounts of interferences remains the major issue. Moreover, current diagnostic technologies are restricted to high-resourced settings only. Integrating nanofibers into miniaturized analytical systems holds a significant promise to address these challenges as demonstrated by recent publications. A large surface area, three-dimensional porous network, and diverse range of functional chemistries make nanofibers an excellent candidate as immobilization support and/or transduction elements, enabling high capture yield and ultrasensitive detection in miniaturized devices. Functional nanofibers have thus been used to isolate and detect various cancer-related biomarkers with a high degree of success in both on-chip and off-chip platforms. In fact, the chemical and functional adaptability of nanofibers has been exploited to address the technical challenges unique to each of the cancer markers in body fluids, where circulating tumor cells are prominently investigated among others (proteins, nucleic acids, and exosomes). So far, none of the work has exploited the nanofibers for cancer-derived exosomes, opening an avenue for further research effort. The trend and future prospects signal possibilities to strengthen the implementation of nanofiber-miniaturized system hybrid for a next generation of cancer diagnostic platforms both in clinical and point-of-care testing.
KeywordsCancer diagnosis Nanofibers Electrospinning Miniaturized analytical systems Point-of-care diagnostics Liquid biopsy
The author would like to thank Prof. Antje J. Baeumner for her guidance and help in correcting the manuscript. The author also would like to thank Mr. Arne Behrent for his critical comments on the early version of this manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The author declares that she has no conflict of interest.
- 1.World Health Organization (2018) Cancer. http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cancer. Accessed 9 Nov 2018.
- 7.Giannitelli SM, Costantini M, Basoli F, Trombetta M, Rainer A (2018) 8 - Electrospinning and microfluidics: an integrated approach for tissue engineering and cancer. In: Guarino V, Ambrosio LBT-ET (EFDTs) for B and MD (eds) Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials. Woodhead Publishing, pp 139–155.Google Scholar
- 18.Wang M, Xiao Y, Lin L, Zhu X, Du L, Shi X. A microfluidic chip integrated with hyaluronic acid-functionalized electrospun chitosan nanofibers for specific capture and nondestructive release of CD44-overexpressing circulating tumor cells. Bioconjug Chem. 2018;29:1081–90. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.7b00747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Yu C-C, Ho B-C, Juang R-S, Hsiao Y-S, Naidu RVR, Kuo C-W, et al. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based nanofiber mats as an organic bioelectronic platform for programming multiple capture/release cycles of circulating tumor cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017;9:30329–42. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b07042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Wang Z, Hai J, Li T, Ding E, He J, Wang B. Pressure and fluorescence dual signal readout CuO-NiO/C heterojunction nanofibers-based nanoplatform for imaging and detection of target cancer cells in blood. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2018;6:9921–9. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b01166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Viraka Nellore BP, Kanchanapally R, Pramanik A, Sinha SS, Chavva SR, Hamme A, et al. Aptamer-conjugated graphene oxide membranes for highly efficient capture and accurate identification of multiple types of circulating tumor cells. Bioconjug Chem. 2015;26:235–42. https://doi.org/10.1021/bc500503e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.Ali MA, Mondal K, Jiao Y, Oren S, Xu Z, Sharma A, et al. Microfluidic immuno-biochip for detection of breast cancer biomarkers using hierarchical composite of porous graphene and titanium dioxide nanofibers. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016;8:20570–82. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b05648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.Dudani JS, Warren AD, Bhatia SN. Harnessing protease activity to improve cancer care. Annu Rev Cancer Biol. 2018;2:353–76. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-cancerbio-030617-050549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Swisher LZ, Prior AM, Shishido S, Nguyen TA, Hua DH, Li J. Quantitative electrochemical detection of cathepsin B activity in complex tissue lysates using enhanced AC voltammetry at carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode arrays. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014;56:129–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2014.01.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 46.Castro-Giner F, Gkountela S, Donato C, Alborelli I, Quagliata L, Ng KC, et al. Cancer diagnosis using a liquid biopsy: challenges and expectations. Diagnostics. 2018;8.Google Scholar
- 47.Lee H, Jeon S, Seo J-S, Goh S-H, Han J-Y, Cho Y. A novel strategy for highly efficient isolation and analysis of circulating tumor-specific cell-free DNA from lung cancer patients using a reusable conducting polymer nanostructure. Biomaterials. 2016;101:251–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.06.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 49.Wang H, Peng R, Wang J, Qin Z, Xue L. Circulating microRNAs as potential cancer biomarkers: the advantage and disadvantage. Clin Epigenetics. 2018;10(59). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148-018-0492-1.
- 52.D’Agata R, Giuffrida CM, Spoto G. Peptide nucleic acid-based biosensors for cancer diagnosis. Mol. 2017;22.Google Scholar
- 59.Yasui T, Yanagida T, Ito S, Konakade Y, Takeshita D, Naganawa T, et al. Unveiling massive numbers of cancer-related urinary-microRNA candidates via nanowires. Sci Adv. 2017;3.Google Scholar
- 63.Sina AAI, Vaidyanathan R, Dey S, Carrascosa LG, Shiddiky MJA, Trau M (2016) Real time and label free profiling of clinically relevant exosomes. Sci Rep 6:30460.Google Scholar
- 64.Xu H, Liao C, Zuo P, Liu Z, Ye B-C. Magnetic-based microfluidic device for on-chip isolation and detection of tumor-derived exosomes. Anal Chem. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.8b03272.