Solid-phase extraction coupled with switchable hydrophilicity solvent-based homogeneous liquid–liquid microextraction for chloramphenicol enrichment in environmental water samples: a novel alternative to classical extraction techniques
A simple and efficient method combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) with homogeneous liquid–liquid microextraction (HLLME) has been developed for fast pretreatment of chloramphenicol (CAP) from water samples prior to determination by high-performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet detection. Oasis HLB sorbent was chosen for SPE. In HLLME, N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine was used as a CO2-triggered switchable solvent that could switch reversibly between hydrophilic and hydrophobic forms. The parameters influencing both SPE and HLLME were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the method exhibited low limit of detection (0.1 ng/mL), good linearity (0.5-50 ng/mL), acceptable precision (RSD <5.0%) and accuracy (RE <4.0%). An enrichment factor of 340 was obtained. The proposed method is simple, fast, cost-effective, and suitable for the determination of trace chloramphenicol in water matrices.
KeywordsSolid-phase extraction Homogeneous liquid–liquid microextraction Switchable hydrophilicity solvent Chloramphenicol
The authors would like to thank Liang Chen, Zhengsheng Mao, and Yanan Zang for their technical assistance during the experiments.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have declared that there are no conflicts of interest.
- 4.Chen H, Rao H, He P, Qiao Y, Wang F, Liu H, et al. Potential toxicity of amphenicol antibiotic: binding of chloramphenicol to human serum albumin. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2014;21(19):3081–7.Google Scholar
- 6.European Commission, Commission Decision (EU) 181/2003, L 71/17 of 13 March2003, Amending Decision 2002/657/EC as regards the setting of minimum required performance limits (MRPLs) for certain residues in food animal origin (2003) 764, Off J Eur Union (2003)17-18.Google Scholar
- 7.Han J, Wang Y, Yu CL, Yan YS, Xie XQ. Extraction and determination of chloramphenicol in feed water, milk, and honey samples using an ionic liquid/sodium citrate aqueous two-phase system coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;399(3):1295–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Han J, Wang Y, Yu C, Li C, Yan Y, Liu Y, et al. Separation, concentration and determination of chloramphenicol in environment and food using an ionic liquid/salt aqueous two-phase flotation system coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Chim Acta. 2011;685(2):138–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Cai Q, Zhang L, Zhao P, Lun X, Li W, Guo Y, et al. A joint experimental-computational investigation: metal organic framework as a vortex assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction sorbent coupled with UPLC–MS/MS for the simultaneous determination of amphenicols and their metabolite in aquaculture water. Microchem J. 2017;130:263–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Guan J, Zhang C, Wang Y, Guo Y, Huang P, Zhao L. Simultaneous determination of 12 pharmaceuticals in water samples by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2016;408(28):8099–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Liang N, Huang P, Hou X, Li Z, Tao L, Zhao L. Solid-phase extraction in combination with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis: the ultra-trace determination of 10 antibiotics in water samples. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2016;408(6):1701–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Ma S, Ye X, Huang P, Zhao L, Liang N. Simultaneous determination of nitroimidazoles and amphenicol antibiotics in water samples using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Methods. 2016;8(46):8219–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Berijani S, Assadi Y, Anbia M, Milani Hosseini MR, Aghaee E. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection very simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1123(1):1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Kakavandi NR, Ezoddin M, Abdi K, Ghazi-Khansari M, Amini M, Shahtaheri SJ. Ion-pair switchable-hydrophilicity solvent-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of paraquat in environmental and biological samples before high-performance liquid chromatography. J Sep Sci. 2017;40(18):3703–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar