Fractionation of cadmium in tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate using XANES and sequential leaching with ICP-MS/MS
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Fractionation data for cadmium in tobacco products, as obtained by sequential leaching of cadmium species with ICP-MS/MS analysis, and separately by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) are presented here for the first time. The total amount of cadmium found in 3R4F cigarette cut tobacco was 1526 ± 42 μg kg−1, of which 5% was found in the smoke under ISO smoking conditions. XANES analysis showed that Cd in tobacco, cigarette smoke and ash was present in the + 2 oxidation state. Examination of the gas-particle partitioning of smoke cadmium suggests that Cd in mainstream smoke is best viewed as semi-volatile, existing in both particulate and gas phases. Sequential extraction of trapped tobacco smoke was carried out to get a deeper insight into the chemistry of cigarette smoke cadmium compounds. Consecutive extractions with ultrapure water, dilute (1%) nitric acid and 10% nitric acid led to extraction of a total amount of Cd which agreed with that obtained after microwave digestion of the whole sample, suggesting that cadmium was quantitatively leachable into aqueous/acidic solutions. Most Cd (~ 90% of the total Cd in the smoke condensate) was extracted into dilute nitric acid (likely as CdO, Cd(OH)2 and CdCO3) with a minor percentage (3%) extracted into water (likely as CdCl2) and in 10% nitric acid (likely as CdS). Extraction of trapped mainstream smoke with pentane, followed by ICP-MS/MS analysis, to examine the possible presence of organocadmium in 3R4F tobacco smoke, did not show the presence of organocadmium compounds above the method LOQ (2 μg kg−1), possibly due to their reactivity under the experimental conditions. The high selectivity with sufficient sensitivity achieved by ICP-MS/MS was invaluable to quantify Cd (at low μg kg−1levels) simultaneously with sulphur and chlorine in the tobacco smoke fractions of complex matrix. The cadmium chemistry in the smoke, identified in this study, is consistent with both relatively high lung absorption and DNA binding; both potentially important factors for disease progression in smokers.
KeywordsMass spectrometry/ICP-MS Metals/heavy metals Trace elements
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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