Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 410, Issue 23, pp 5961–5967 | Cite as

Development of immunosorbents for the analysis of forchlorfenuron in fruit juices by ion mobility spectrometry

  • Alejandro Orellana-Silla
  • Sergio ArmentaEmail author
  • Miguel de la Guardia
  • Josep V. Mercader
  • Francesc A. Esteve-TurrillasEmail author
Research Paper


The advantages of using smart materials as immunosorbents in the analysis of complex matrices by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) have been highlighted in this study. A novel analytical method has been proposed for the sensitive, selective, and fast determination of residues of the plant growth regulator forchlorfenuron in fruit juices. Three different monoclonal antibodies (s3#22, p2#21, and p6#41) were employed for the production of immunosorbents, based on Sepharose gel beads, which were characterized in terms of loading capacity, solvent resistance, and repeatability for its use in solid-phase extraction (SPE). Immunosorbents that were prepared with antibody p6#44 provided the best performance, with a loading capacity of 0.97 μg, a 10% (v/v) 2-propanol tolerance, and a reusability of at least eight uses. The SPE procedure involved the use of a column with 0.15 g Sepharose beads, containing 0.5 mg antibody, which was loaded to 20 mL of the sample, washed with 2 mL of water plus 2 mL of 10% (v/v) 2-propanol, and eluted with 2 mL of 2-propanol. The cleaned extract was directly analyzed by IMS, giving a limit of detection of 2 μg L−1 with a relative standard deviation of 7.6%. Trueness was assessed by the analysis of blank grape and kiwifruit juice samples spiked with forchlorfenuron concentrations from 10 to 400 μg L−1, with recoveries from 80 to 115%. The analytical performance of the proposed immunosorbent was compared with conventional extraction and cleanup methods, such as QuEChERS and C18-based SPE, giving the cleanest extracts for accurate determinations of forchlorfenuron by IMS.

Graphical abstract


Forchlorfenuron Immunosorbent Smart material Ion mobility spectrometry Monoclonal antibody Solid-phase extraction 


Funding information

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (AGL2012-39965-C02-01-02/ALI and CTQ-2014-52841-P) and Generalitat Valenciana (PROMETEO-II 2014-077).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alejandro Orellana-Silla
    • 1
  • Sergio Armenta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Miguel de la Guardia
    • 1
  • Josep V. Mercader
    • 2
  • Francesc A. Esteve-Turrillas
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Analytical ChemistryUniversity of ValenciaBurjassotSpain
  2. 2.Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IATA-CSIC)PaternaSpain

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