Advertisement

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 410, Issue 20, pp 4815–4827 | Cite as

Metal oxide nanoparticles for latent fingerprint visualization and analysis of small drug molecules using surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

Research Paper

Abstract

We explored the applicability of different metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs; ZnO, TiO2, Fe2O3, and CeO2) for the optical imaging and mass spectrometric determination of small drug molecules in latent fingerprints (LFPs). Optical imaging was achieved using a dry method—simply dusting the LFPs with a minute amount of NP powder—and still images were captured using a digital microscope and a smartphone camera. Mass spectrometric determination was performed using the NPs as substrates for surface-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS), which enabled the detection of small drug molecules with high signal intensities. The reproducibility of the results was studied by calculating the % error, SD, and RSD in the results obtained with the various metal oxide NPs. Collectively, the findings showed that using NPs can boost the intensity of the detected signal while minimizing background noise which is an issue predominantly associated with conventional organic matrices of MALDI-MS. Among the four metal oxide NPs, utilization of the Fe2O3 NPs led to the best SALDI performance and the highest detection sensitivity for the analytes of interest. The study was then extended by investigating the influence of time elapsed since the generation of the LFP on the detection of drug molecules in the LFP. The results demonstrated that this method allows the analysis of drug molecules after as long as one week at low and intermediate temperatures (0 and 25 °C). Therefore, the SALDI analysis of small molecules using inorganic NPs, which can be implemented in forensic laboratories for screening and detection purposes, as a powerful alternative to the use of organic matrices.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Metal oxide NPs SALDI Latent fingerprints Small molecules Visualization 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) under project code P115-14SC-04. Special thanks are extended to RSPU Facilities nos. GS 01/01 and GS 02/01, and the Chemistry Department of Kuwait University for implementing the required MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analyses. The Nanoscopy Science Centre is also gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were approved by the Health Sciences Centre Ethical Committee of Kuwait University and were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent to use their fingerprints was obtained from healthy volunteers and was approved by the Health Sciences Centre Ethical Committee of Kuwait University.

Conflict of interest

I certify that all persons who have made substantial contributions to this manuscript are listed as coauthors, and there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Kellman PJ, Mnookin JL, Erlikhman G, Garrigan P, Ghose T, Mettler E, et al. Forensic comparison and matching of fingerprints: using quantitative image measures for estimating error rates through understanding and predicting difficulty. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e94617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ifa DR, Manicke NE, Dill AL, Cooks RG. Latent fingerprint chemical imaging by mass spectrometry. Science. 2008;321(5890):805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hazarika P, Russell DA. Advances in fingerprint analysis. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012;51(15):3524–31.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201104313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Huynh C, Halámek J. Trends in fingerprint analysis. Trends Anal Chem. 2016;82:328–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Francese S, Bradshaw R, Ferguson LS, Wolstenholme R, Clench MR, Bleay S. Beyond the ridge pattern: multi-informative analysis of latent fingermarks by MALDI mass spectrometry. Analyst. 2013;138(15):4215–28.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c3an36896c.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheng Y-H, Zhang Y, Chau S-L, Lai SK-M, Tang H-W, Ng K-M. Enhancement of image contrast, stability, and SALDI-MS detection sensitivity for latent fingerprint analysis by tuning the composition of silver–gold nanoalloys. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016;8(43):29668–75.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b09668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Groeneveld G, de Puit M, Bleay S, Bradshaw R, Francese S. Detection and mapping of illicit drugs and their metabolites in fingermarks by MALDI MS and compatibility with forensic techniques. Sci Rep. 2015;5:11716–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Walton BL, Verbeck GF. Soft-landing ion mobility of silver clusters for small-molecule matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and imaging of latent fingerprints. Anal Chem. 2014;86(16):8114–20.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac5010822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rowell F, Hudson K, Seviour J. Detection of drugs and their metabolites in dusted latent fingermarks by mass spectrometry. Analyst. 2009;134(4):701–7.  https://doi.org/10.1039/b813957c.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arakawa R, Kawasaki H. Functionalized nanoparticles and nanostructured surfaces for surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Anal Sci. 2010;26(12):1229–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sunner J, Dratz E, Chen Y-C. Graphite surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of peptides and proteins from liquid solutions. Anal Chem. 1995;67(23):4335–42.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00119a021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schürenberg M, Dreisewerd K, Hillenkamp F. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of peptides and proteins with particle suspension matrixes. Anal Chem. 1999;71(1):221–9.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac980634c.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kinumi T, Saisu T, Takayama M, Niw H. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry using an inorganic particle matrix for small molecule analysis. J Mass Spectrom. 2000;35(3):417–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Amini N, Shariatgorji M, Thorsén G. SALDI-MS signal enhancement using oxidized graphitized carbon black nanoparticles. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2009;20(6):1207–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasms.2009.02.017.
  15. 15.
    Benton M, Rowell F, Sundar L, Jan M. Direct detection of nicotine and cotinine in dusted latent fingermarks of smokers by using hydrophobic silica particles and MS. Surf Interface Anal. 2010;42(5):378–85.  https://doi.org/10.1002/sia.3112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Benton M, Chua MJ, Gu F, Rowell F, Ma J. Environmental nicotine contamination in latent fingermarks from smoker contacts and passive smoking. Forensic Sci Int. 2010;200(1–3):28–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lim AY, Ma Z, Ma J, Rowell F. Separation of fingerprint constituents using magnetic silica nanoparticles and direct on-particle SALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B. 2011;879(23):2244–50.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tang H-W, Lu W, Che C-M, Ng K-M. Gold nanoparticles and imaging mass spectrometry: double imaging of latent fingerprints. Anal Chem. 2010;82(5):1589–93.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac9026077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Silina YE, Fink-Straube C, Hayen H, Volmer DA. Analysis of fatty acids and triacylglycerides by Pd nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Anal Methods. 2015;7(9):3701–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sonderegger H, Rameshan C, Lorenz H, Klauser F, Klerks M, Rainer M, et al. Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry using TiO2-coated steel targets for the analysis of small molecules. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401(6):1963.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-5255-1.
  21. 21.
    Shi C, Deng C. Recent advances in inorganic materials for LDI-MS analysis of small molecules. Analyst. 2016;141(10):2816–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Piret G, Kim D, Drobecq H, Coffinier Y, Melnyk O, Schmuki P, et al. Surface-assisted laser desorption–ionization mass spectrometry on titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube layers. Analyst. 2012;137(13):3058–63.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bian J, Olesik SV. Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of small drug molecules and high molecular weight synthetic/biological polymers using electrospun composite nanofibers. Analyst. 2017;142(7):1125–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Al-Hetlani E, Amin MO, Madkour M. Detachable photocatalysts of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles: annulling surface charge for immediate photocatalyst separation. Appl Surf Sci. 2017;411:355–62.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bumajdad A, Madkour M. In situ growth of ZnO nanoparticles in precursor-insensitive water-in-oil microemulsion as soft nanoreactors. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2015;10(1):19.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s11671-015-0730-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu W, Rose J, Plantevin S, Auffan M, Bottero J-Y, Vidaud C. Protein corona formation for nanomaterials and proteins of a similar size: hard or soft corona? Nano. 2013;5(4):1658–68.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yagnik GB, Hansen RL, Korte AR, Reichert MD, Vela J, Lee YJ. Large scale nanoparticle screening for small molecule analysis in laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2016;88(18):8926–30.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.6b02732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wolstenholme R, Bradshaw R, Clench MR, Francese S. Study of latent fingermarks by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry imaging of endogenous lipids. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2009;23(19):3031–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Choi MJ, McBean K, Wuhrer R, McDonagh AM, Maynard PJ, Lennard C, et al. Investigation into the binding of gold nanoparticles to fingermarks using scanning electron microscopy. J Forensic Sci. 2006;56(1):24–32.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Leggett R, Lee-Smith EE, Jickells SM, Russell DA. “Intelligent” fingerprinting: simultaneous identification of drug metabolites and individuals by using antibody-functionalized nanoparticles. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2007;46(22):4100–3.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200700217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wilshire B. Advances in fingerprint detection. Endeavour. 1996;20(1):12–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-9327(96)10005-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Spindler X, Hofstetter O, McDonagh AM, Roux C, Lennard C. Enhancement of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces using anti-l-amino acid antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles. Chem Commun. 2011;47(19):5602–4.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c0cc05748g.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemistry Department, Faculty of ScienceKuwait UniversitySafatKuwait

Personalised recommendations