Synthesis and application of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers in sample preparation

Review
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have superior advantages in sample pretreatment because of their high selectivity for target analytes and the fast and easy isolation from samples. To meet the demand of both good magnetic property and good extraction performance, MMIPs with various structures, from traditional core–shell structures to novel composite structures with a larger specific surface area and more accessible binding sites, are fabricated by different preparation technologies. Moreover, as the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) layers determine the affinity, selectivity, and saturated adsorption amount of MMIPs, the development and innovation of the MIP layer are attracting attention and are reviewed here. Many studies that used MMIPs as sorbents in dispersive solid-phase extraction of complex samples, including environmental, food, and biofluid samples, are summarized.

Graphical abstract

The application of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in the sample preparation procedure improves the analytical performances for complex samples. MITs molecular imprinting technologies

Keywords

Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers Sample preparation Complex samples Dispersive solid-phase extraction Selective extraction 

Abbreviations

ATRP

Atom transfer radical polymerization

BPA

Bisphenol A

CNT

Carbon nanotube

DSPE

Dispersive solid-phase extraction

EGDMA

Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate

Fe3O4@SiO2

Silica-coated Fe3O4

FRP

Free-radical polymerization

GO

Graphene oxide

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

IF

Imprinting factor

IIP

Ion-imprinted polymer

LCRP

Living/controlled radical polymerization

LOD

Limit of detection

MAA

Methacrylic acid

MIP

Molecularly imprinted polymer

MIT

Molecular imprinting technology

MMIP

Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer

MNP

Magnetic nanoparticle

MPS

3-(Methacryloxy)propyl trimethoxysilane

RAFT

Reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer

si-ATRP

Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 21377172, 21225731, 21477166, 21527813, and 21225731) and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (grant S2013030013474) is gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

References

  1. 1.
    Rios A, Zougagh M. Recent advances in magnetic nanomaterials for improving analytical processes. Trends Anal Chem. 2016;84:72–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen LG, Wang T, Tong J. Application of derivatized magnetic materials to the separation and the preconcentration of pollutants in water samples. Trends Anal Chem. 2011;30(7):1095–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xie LJ, Jiang RF, Zhu F, Liu H, Ouyang GF. Application of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles in sample preparation. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2014;406(2):377–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen L, Wang X, Lu W, Wu X, Li J. Molecular imprinting: perspectives and applications. Chem Soc Rev. 2016;45(8):2137–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rao HB, Lu ZW, Ge HW, Liu X, Chen BY, Zou P, et al. Electrochemical creatinine sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with a molecularly imprinted polymer and a Ni@polyaniline nanocomposite. Microchim Acta. 2017;184(1):261–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li XX, Pan JM, Dai JD, Dai XH, Xu LC, Wei X, et al. Surface molecular imprinting onto magnetic yeast composites via atom transfer radical polymerization for selective recognition of cefalexin. Chem Eng J. 2012;198:503–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu ZC, Hu ZY, Liu Y, Meng MJ, Ni L, Meng XG, et al. Monodisperse magnetic ion imprinted polymeric microparticles prepared by RAFT polymerization based on gamma-Fe2O3@meso-SiO2 nanospheres for selective solid-phase extraction of Cu(II) in water samples. RSC Adv. 2015;5(65):52369–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Madrakian T, Afkhami A, Rahimi M, Ahmadi M, Soleimani M. Preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of oxymetholone in the presence of its main metabolite (mestanolone) using modified maghemite nanoparticles in urine sample. Talanta. 2013;115:468–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li XS, Xu LD, Shan YB, Yuan BF, Feng YQ. Preparation of magnetic poly(diethyl vinylphosphonate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) for the determination of chlorophenols in water samples. J Chromatogr A. 2012;1265:24–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li YF, Qiao LQ, Li FW, Ding Y, Yang ZJ, Wang ML. Determination of multiple pesticides in fruits and vegetables using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method with magnetic nanoparticles and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2014;1361:77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu M, Li XY, Li JJ, Su XM, Wu ZY, Li PF, et al. Synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective separation and determination of metronidazole in cosmetic samples. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015;407(13):3875–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kim J, Piao Y, Lee N, Park YI, Lee IH, Lee JH, et al. Magnetic nanocomposite spheres decorated with NiO nanoparticles for a magnetically recyclable protein separation system. Adv Mater. 2010;22(1):57–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li X, Zhang LM, Wei XP, Li JP. A sensitive and renewable chlortoluron molecularly imprinted polymer sensor based on the gate-controlled catalytic electrooxidation of H2O2 on magnetic nano-NiO. Electroanalysis. 2013;25(5):1286–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee IS, Lee N, Park J, Kim BH, Yi YW, Kim T, et al. Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles for selective binding and magnetic separation of histidine-tagged proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128(33):10658–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gu XH, Xu R, Yuan GL, Lu H, Gu BR, Xie HP. Preparation of chlorogenic acid surface-imprinted magnetic nanoparticles and their usage in separation of traditional Chinese medicine. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;675(1):64–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lu FG, Li HJ, Sun M, Fan LL, Qiu HM, Li XJ, et al. Flow injection chemiluminescence sensor based on core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for determination of sulfadiazine. Anal Chim Acta. 2012;718:84–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhu WY, Jiang GY, Xu L, Li BZ, Cai QZ, Jiang HJ, et al. Facile and controllable one-step fabrication of molecularly imprinted polymer membrane by magnetic field directed self-assembly for electrochemical sensing of glutathione. Anal Chim Acta. 2015;886:37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shao M, Ning F, Zhao J, Wei M, Evans DG, Duan X. Preparation of Fe3O4@SiO2@layered double hydroxide core-shell microspheres for magnetic separation of proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134(2):1071–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Deng Y, Qi D, Deng C, Zhang X, Zhao D. Superparamagnetic high-magnetization microspheres with an Fe3O4@SiO2 core and perpendicularly aligned mesoporous SiO2 shell for removal of microcystins. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130(1):28–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Deng H, Li XL, Peng Q, Wang X, Chen JP, Li YD. Monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite microspheres. Angew Chem Int Edit. 2005;44(18):2782–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    You QP, Zhang YP, Zhang QW, Guo JF, Huang WH, Shi SY, et al. High-capacity thermo-responsive magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction of curcuminoids. J Chromatogr A. 2014;1354:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Behbahani M, Bagheri S, Amini MM, Abandansari HS, Moazami HR, Bagheri A. Application of a magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction and trace detection of lamotrigine in urine and plasma samples. J Sep Sci. 2014;37(13):1610–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lofgreen JE, Ozin GA. Controlling morphology and porosity to improve performance of molecularly imprinted sol-gel silica. Chem Soc Rev. 2014;43(3):911–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang XH, Fang QX, Liu SP, Chen L. Preparation of a magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer with pseudo template for rapid simultaneous determination of cyromazine and melamine in bio-matrix samples. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;404:1555–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hang H, Li CX, Pan JM, Li LZ, Dai JD, Dai XH, et al. Selective separation of lambdacyhalothrin by porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization. J Sep Sci. 2013;36(19):3285–94.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dai JD, He JS, Xie AT, Gao L, Pan JM, Chen X, et al. Novel pitaya-inspired well-defined core–shell nanospheres with ultrathin surface imprinted nanofilm from magnetic mesoporous nanosilica for highly efficient chloramphenicol removal. Chem Eng J. 2016;284:812–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu LK, Cao Y, Ma PF, Qiu CX, Xu WZ, Liu H, et al. Rational design and preparation of magnetic imprinted polymers for removal of indole by molecular simulation and improved atom transfer radical polymerization. RSC Adv. 2014;4(2):605–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    He YH, Huang YY, Jin YL, Liu XJ, Liu GQ, Zhao R. Well-defined nanostructured surface-imprinted polymers for highly selective magnetic separation of fluoroquinolones in human urine. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014;6(12):9634–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Men HF, Liu HQ, Zhang ZL, Huang J, Zhang J, Zhai YY, et al. Synthesis, properties and application research of atrazine Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2012;19(6):2271–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ebrahimzadeh H, Asgharinezhad AA, Moazzen E, Amini MM, Sadeghi O. A magnetic ion-imprinted polymer for lead(II) determination: A study on the adsorption of lead(II) by beverages. J Food Compos Anal. 2015;41:74–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang YG, Song D, Lanni L, Shimizu KD. Importance of functional monomer dimerization in the molecular imprinting process. Macromolecules. 2010;43(15):6284–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hu YL, Pan JL, Zhang KG, Lian HX, Li GK. Novel applications of molecularly-imprinted polymers in sample preparation. Trends Anal Chem. 2013;43:37–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Matyjaszewski K, Xia J. Atom transfer radical polymerization. Chem Rev. 2001;101(9):2921–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liu YL, Huang YY, Liu JZ, Wang WZ, Liu GQ, Zhao R. Superparamagnetic surface molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for water-soluble pefloxacin mesylate prepared via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization and its application in egg sample analysis. J Chromatogr A. 2012;1246:15–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jakubowski W, Matyjaszewski K. Activator generated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization. Macromolecules. 2005;38(10):4139–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gonzato C, Courty M, Pasetto P, Haupt K. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanocomposites via surface-initiated RAFT polymerization. Adv Funct Mater. 2011;21(20):3947–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Li JH, Dong RC, Wang XY, Xiong H, Xu SF, Shen DZ, et al. One-pot synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted microspheres by RAFT precipitation polymerization for the fast and selective removal of 17 beta-estradiol. RSC Adv. 2015;5(14):10611–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Li Y, Li X, Chu J, Dong CK, Qi JY, Yuan YX. Synthesis of core-shell magnetic molecular imprinted polymer by the surface RAFT polymerization for the fast and selective removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals from aqueous solutions. Environ Pollut. 2010;158(6):2317–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Xu S, Li J, Chen L. Molecularly imprinted core-shell nanoparticles for determination of trace atrazine by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer surface imprinting. J Mater Chem. 2011;21(12):4346–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gao RX, Hao Y, Zhao SQ, Zhang LL, Cui XH, Liu DC, et al. Novel magnetic multi-template molecularly imprinted polymers for specific separation and determination of three endocrine disrupting compounds simultaneously in environmental water samples. RSC Adv. 2014;4(100):56798–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhao BS, He M, Chen BB, Hu B. Novel ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica for selective magnetic solid phase extraction of trace Cd followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection. Spectrochim Acta B. 2015;107:115–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Liu XY, Yu D, Yu YC, Ji SJ. Preparation of a magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for selective recognition of rhodamine B. Appl Surf Sci. 2014;320:138–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Avnir D. Organic chemistry within ceramic matrixes: doped sol-gel materials. Acc Chem Res. 1995;28(8):328–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yao GH, Liang RP, Huang CF, Wang Y, Qiu JD. Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers amplification for pesticide recognition. Anal Chem. 2013;85(24):11944–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Xia XP, Xu ML, Wang YZ, Ran D, Yang S, Zhang M. Polydopamine-based molecular imprinting on silica-modified magnetic nanoparticles for recognition and separation of bovine hemoglobin. Analyst. 2013;138(2):651–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Li XJ, Zhou JJ, Tian L, Wang YF, Zhang BL, Zhang HP, et al. Preparation of anti-nonspecific adsorption polydopamine-based surface protein-imprinted magnetic microspheres with the assistance of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine and its application for protein recognition. Sensors Actuators B Chem. 2017;241:413–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lee H, Dellatore SM, Miller WM, Messersmith PB. Messel-inspired surface chemistry for multifunctional coatings. Science. 2007;318(5849):426–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Aguilar-Arteaga K, Rodriguez JA, Barrado E. Magnetic solids in analytical chemistry: a review. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;674(2):157–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zou YL, Zhao CY, Dai JD, Zhou ZP, Pan JM, Yu P, et al. Magnetic and hydrophilic imprinted particles via ATRP at room temperature for selective separation of sulfamethazine. Colloid Polym Sci. 2014;292(2):333–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Li H, Hu X, Zhang YP, Shi SY, Jiang XY, Chen XQ. High-capacity magnetic hollow porous molecularly imprinted polymers for specific extraction of protocatechuic acid. J Chromatogr A. 2015;1404:21–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Luo J, Gao YH, Tan K, Wei W, Liu XY. Preparation of a magnetic molecularly imprinted graphene composite highly adsorbent for 4-nitrophenol in aqueous medium. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2016;4(6):3316–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ma GF, Chen LG. Development of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers based on carbon nanotubes - application for trace analysis of pyrethroids in fruit matrices. J Chromatogr A. 2014;1329:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zhao Y-G, Zhou L-X, Pan S-D, Zhan P-P, Chen X-H, Jin M-C. Fast determination of 22 sulfonamides from chicken breast muscle using core–shell nanoring amino-functionalized superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymer followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2014;1345:17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ma W, Dai JD, Dai XH, Da ZL, Yan YS. Core-shell molecularly imprinted polymers based on magnetic chitosan microspheres for chloramphenicol selective adsorption. Monatsh Chem. 2015;146(3):465–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Yin YL, Yan L, Zhang ZH, Wang J. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polydopamine nanolayer on multiwalled carbon nanotubes surface for protein capture. Talanta. 2015;144:671–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dai JD, Zhou ZP, Zou YL, Wei X, Dai XH, Li CX, et al. Surface imprinted core-shell nanorod with ultrathin water-compatible polymer brushes for specific recognition and adsorption of sulfamethazine in water medium. J Appl Polym Sci. 2014;131(19):40854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yan L, Yin YL, Lv PP, Zhang ZH, Wang J, Long F. Synthesis and application of novel 3D magnetic chlorogenic acid imprinted polymers based on a graphene carbon nanotube composite. J Agric Food Chem. 2016;64(15):3091–100.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chambers SD, Holcombe TW, Svec F, JMJ F. Porous polymer monoliths functionalized through copolymerization of a C60 fullerene-containing methacrylate monomer for highly efficient separations of small molecules. Anal Chem. 2011;83:9478–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ansell RJ, Mosbach K. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer beads for drug radioligand binding assay. Analyst. 1998;123(7):1611–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Luo XB, Huang YN, Deng F, Luo SL, Zhan YC, Shu HY, et al. A magnetic copper(II)-imprinted polymer for the selective enrichment of trace copper(II) ions in environmental water. Microchim Acta. 2012;179(3-4):283–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Liu J, Wang W, Xie Y, Huang Y, Liu Y, Liu X, et al. A novel polychloromethylstyrene coated superparamagnetic surface molecularly imprinted core-shell nanoparticle for bisphenol A. J Mater Chem. 2011;21(25):9232–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Xiao DL, Wang CX, Dai H, Peng J, He J, Zhang K, et al. Applications of magnetic surface imprinted materials for solid phase extraction of levofloxacin in serum samples. J Mol Recognit. 2015;28(5):277–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Xiao D, Dramou P, Xiong N, He H, Li H, Yuan D, et al. Development of novel molecularly imprinted magnetic solid-phase extraction materials based on magnetic carbon nanotubes and their application for the determination of gatifloxacin in serum samples coupled with high performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1274:44–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ma P, Zhou ZP, Dai JD, Qin L, Ye XB, Chen X, et al. A biomimetic Setaria viridis-inspired imprinted nanoadsorbent: green synthesis and application to the highly selective and fast removal of sulfamethazine. RSC Adv. 2016;6(12):9619–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ning FJ, Qiu TT, Wang Q, Peng HL, Li YB, Wu XQ, et al. Dummy-surface molecularly imprinted polymers on magnetic graphene oxide for rapid and selective quantification of acrylamide in heat-processed (including fried) foods. Food Chem. 2017;221:1797–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zhao YG, Chen XH, Pan SD, Zhu H, Shen HY, Jin MC. Self-assembly of a surface bisphenol A-imprinted core-shell nanoring amino-functionalized superparamagnetic polymer. J Mater Chem A. 2013;1(38):11648–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rios A, Zougagh M, Bouri M. Magnetic (nano)materials as an useful tool for sample preparation in analytical methods. A review. Anal Methods. 2013;5:4558–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kubo T, Otsuka K. Recent progress in molecularly imprinted media by new preparation concepts and methodological approaches for selective separation of targeting compounds. Trends Anal Chem. 2016;81:102–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Whitcombe MJ, Rodriguez ME, Villar P, Vulfson EN. A new method for the introduction of recognition site functionality into polymers prepared by molecular imprinting: synthesis and characterization of polymeric receptors for cholesterol. J Am Chem Soc. 1995;117(27):7105–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ki CD, Oh C, Oh SG, Chang JY. The use of a thermally reversible bond for molecular imprinting of silica spheres. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:14838–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Qiao FX, Row KH, Wang MG. Water-compatible magnetic imprinted microspheres for rapid separation and determination of triazine herbicides in environmental water. J Chromatogr B. 2014;957:84–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zhang Y, Liu RJ, Hu YL, Li G. Microwave heating in preparation of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer beads for trace triazines analysis in complicated samples. Anal Chem. 2009;81(3):967–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cho CMH, Mulchandani A, Chen W. Bacterial cell surface display of organophosphorus hydrolase for selective screening of improved hydrolysis of organophosphate nerve agents. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68(4):2026–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Miao SS, Wu MS, Zuo HG, Jiang C, Jin SF, Lu YC, et al. Core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers as sorbent for sulfonylurea herbicide residues. J Agric Food Chem. 2015;63(14):3634–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pan JM, Zhu WJ, Dai XH, Yan XS, Gan MY, Li LZ, et al. Magnetic molecularly imprinted microcapsules derived from Pickering emulsion polymerization and their novel adsorption characteristics for lambda-cyhalothrin. RSC Adv. 2014;4(9):4435–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Liu CB, Song ZL, Pan JM, Wei X, Gao L, Yan YS, et al. Molecular imprinting in fluorescent particle stabilized Pickering emulsion for selective and sensitive optosensing of lambda-cyhalothrin. J Phys Chem C. 2013;117(20):10445–53.77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hu YL, Liu RJ, Zhang Y, Li GK. Improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer beads in aqueous media via dual-phase solvent system. Talanta. 2009;79(3):576–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Zare F, Ghaedi M, Daneshfar A, Ostovan A. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the efficient and selective preconcentration of diazinon before its determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Sep Sci. 2015;38(16):2797–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bazmandegan-Shamili A, Dadfarnia S, Shabani AMH, Saeidi M, Moghadam MR. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of diazinon after its magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer. Food Anal Methods. 2016;9(9):2621–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ma GF, Chen LG. Determination of chlorpyrifos in rice based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. Food Anal Methods. 2014;7(2):377–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Xu SY, Guo CJ, Li YX, Yu ZR, Wei CH, Tang YW. Methyl parathion imprinted polymer nanoshell coated on the magnetic nanocore for selective recognition and fast adsorption and separation in soils. J Hazard Mater. 2014;264:34–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    You XX, Chen LG. Analysis of sulfonylurea herbicides in grain samples using molecularly imprinted polymers on the surface of magnetic carbon nanotubes by extraction coupled with HPLC. Anal Methods. 2016;8(5):1003–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lerma-Garcia MJ, Zougagh M, Rios A. Magnetic molecular imprint-based extraction of sulfonylurea herbicides and their determination by capillary liquid chromatography. Microchim Acta. 2013;180(5-6):363–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gao L, Wang JX, Li XY, Yan YS, Li CX, Pan JM. A core-shell surface magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers with fluorescence for lambda-cyhalothrin selective recognition. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2014;406(28):7213–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Li SH, Xu MZ, Wu XJ, Luo JH. Synergetic recognition and separation of kelthane and pyridaben base on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanospheres. J Sep Sci. 2016;39(20):4019–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Li SH, Wu XJ, Zhang Q, Li PP. Synergetic dual recognition and separation of the fungicide carbendazim by using magnetic nanoparticles carrying a molecularly imprinted polymer and immobilized beta-cyclodextrin. Microchim Acta. 2016;183(4):1433–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gao L, Chen LG, Li XW. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers based on carbon nanotubes for extraction of carbamates. Microchim Acta. 2015;182(3-4):781–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cheng XL, Yan HY, Wang XL, Sun N, Qiao XQ. Vortex-assisted magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction for rapid screening and recognition of dicofol residues in tea products. Food Chem. 2014;162:104–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Qiao FX, Gao MM, Yan HY. Molecularly imprinted ionic liquid magnetic microspheres for the rapid isolation of organochlorine pesticides in environmental water. J Sep Sci. 2016;39(7):1310–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Masoumi A, Hemmati K, Ghaemy M. Recognition and selective adsorption of pesticides by superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanospheres. RSC Adv. 2016;6(55):49401–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Moreno-Bondi MC, Marazuela MD, Herranz S, Rodriguez E. An overview of sample preparation procedures for LC-MS multiclass antibiotic determination in environmental and food samples. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2009;395(4):921–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Qin SL, Su LQ, Wang P, Gao Y. Rapid and selective extraction of multiple sulfonamides from aqueous samples based on Fe3O4-chitosan molecularly imprinted polymers. Anal Methods. 2015;7(20):8704–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Chen HY, Zhang YQ, Gao B, Xu Y, Zhao Q, Hou J, et al. Fast determination of sulfonamides and their acetylated metabolites from environmental water based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2013;20(12):8567–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Xu LC, Pan JM, Dai JD, Cao ZJ, Hang H, Li XX, et al. Magnetic ZnO surface-imprinted polymers prepared by ARGET ATRP and the application for antibiotics selective recognition. RSC Adv. 2012;2(13):5571–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kong JH, Wang YZ, Nie C, Ran D, Jia XP. Preparation of magnetic mixed-templates molecularly imprinted polymer for the separation of tetracycline antibiotics from egg and honey samples. Anal Methods. 2012;4(4):1005–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Zhou YS, Zhou TT, Jin H, Jing T, Song B, Zhou YK, et al. Rapid and selective extraction of multiple macrolide antibiotics in foodstuff samples based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers. Talanta. 2015;137:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ding J, Zhang FS, Zhang XP, Wang L, Wang CJ, Zhao Q, et al. Determination of roxithromycin from human plasma samples based on magnetic surface molecularly imprinted polymers followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectromer. J Chromatogr B. 2016;1021:221–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rao W, Cai R, Zhang ZH, Yin YL, Long F, Fu XX. Fast separation and determination of erythromycin with magnetic imprinted solid extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography. RSC Adv. 2014;4(36):18503–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wei SL, Li JW, Liu Y, Ma JK. Development of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers with double templates for the rapid and selective determination of amphenicol antibiotics in water, blood, and egg samples. J Chromatogr A. 2016;1473:19–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Zhang X, Chen L, Xu Y, Wang H, Zeng Q, Zhao Q, et al. Determination of beta-lactam antibiotics in milk based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B. 2010;878(32):3421–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wang YF, Wang YG, Ouyang XK, Yang LY. Surface-imprinted magnetic carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals for the highly selective extraction of six fluoroquinolones from egg samples. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017;9(2):1759–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Xiao DL, Dramou P, Xiong NQ, He H, Yuan DH, Dai H, et al. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers on the surface of magnetic carbon nanotubes with a pseudo template for rapid simultaneous extraction of four fluoroquinolones in egg samples. Analyst. 2013;138(11):3287–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Chen LG, Zhang XP, Xu Y, Du XB, Sun X, Sun L, et al. Determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in environmental water samples based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;662(1):31–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Chen XH, Zhao YG, Zhang Y, Shen HY, Pan SD, Jin MC. Ethylenediamine-functionalized superparamagnetic carbon nanotubes for magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of 12 fluoroquinolones in river water. Anal Methods. 2015;7(14):5838–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Chen L, Liu J, Zeng Q, Wang H, Yu A, Zhang H, et al. Preparation of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the separation of tetracycline antibiotics from egg and tissue samples. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216(18):3710–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sadeghi O, Aboufazeli F, Zhad H, Karimi M, Najafi E. Determination of Pb(II) ions using novel ion-imprinted polymer magnetic nanoparticles: investigation of the relation between Pb(II) ions in cow's milk and their nutrition. Food Anal Methods. 2013;6(3):753–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Asgharinezhad AA, Jalilian N, Ebrahimzadeh H, Panjali Z. A simple and fast method based on new magnetic ion imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the selective extraction of Ni(II) ions in different food samples. RSC Adv. 2015;5(56):45510–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kazemi E, Shabani AMH, Dadfarnia S. Synthesis and characterization of a nanomagnetic ion imprinted polymer for selective extraction of silver ions from aqueous samples. Microchim Acta. 2015;182(5-6):1025–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Aboufazeli F, Zhad H, Sadeghi O, Karimi M, Najafi E. Novel ion imprinted polymer magnetic mesoporous silica nano-particles for selective separation and determination of lead ions in food samples. Food Chem. 2013;141(4):3459–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Fayazi M, Taher MA, Afzali D, Mostafavi A, Ghanei-Motlagh M. Synthesis and application of novel ion-imprinted polymer coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for selective solid phase extraction of lead(II) ions. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2016;60:365–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ebrahimzadeh H, Kasaeian M, Khalilzadeh A, Moazzen E. New magnetic polymeric nanoparticles for extraction of trace cadmium ions and the determination of cadmium content in diesel oil samples. Anal Methods. 2014;6(13):4617–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Zarezade V, Behbahani M, Omidi F, Abandansari HS, Hesam G. A new magnetic tailor made polymer for separation and trace determination of cadmium ions by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RSC Adv. 2016;6(105):103499–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sayar O, Torbati NA, Saravani H, Mehrani K, Behbahani A, Zadeh HRM. A novel magnetic ion imprinted polymer for selective adsorption of trace amounts of lead(II) ions in environment samples. J Ind Eng Chem. 2014;20(5):2657–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Cui Y, Liu JQ, Hu ZJ, Xu XW, Gao HW. Well-defined surface ion-imprinted magnetic microspheres for facile onsite monitoring of lead ions at trace level in water. Anal Methods. 2012;4(10):3095–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Wei SL, Liu Y, Shao MD, Liu L, Wang HW, Liu YQ. Preparation of magnetic Pb(II) and Cd(II) ion-imprinted microspheres and their application in determining the Pb(II) and Cd(II) contents of environmental and food samples. RSC Adv. 2014;4(56):29715–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    He H, Xiao DL, He J, Li H, He H, Dai H, et al. Preparation of a core-shell magnetic ion-imprinted polymer via a sol-gel process for selective extraction of Cu(II) from herbal medicines. Analyst. 2014;139(10):2459–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Najafi E, Aboufazeli F, Zhad H, Sadeghi O, Amani V. A novel magnetic ion imprinted nano-polymer for selective separation and determination of low levels of mercury(II) ions in fish samples. Food Chem. 2013;141(4):4040–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Sadeghi S, Aboobakri E. Magnetic nanoparticles with an imprinted polymer coating for the selective extraction of uranyl ions. Microchim Acta. 2012;178(1-2):89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Aliakbari A, Amini MM, Mehrani K, Zadeh HRM. Magnetic ion imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the preconcentration of vanadium(IV) ions. Microchim Acta. 2014;181(15-16):1931–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ebrahimzadeh H, Moazzen E, Amini MM, Sadeghi O. Novel magnetic ion imprinted polymer as a highly selective sorbent for extraction of gold ions in aqueous samples. Anal Methods. 2012;4(10):3232–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kirsch N, Alexander C, Davies S, Whitcombe MJ. Sacrificial spacer and non-covalent routes toward the molecular imprinting of “poorly-functionalized” N-heterocycles. Anal Chim Acta. 2004;504(1):63–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hao Y, Gao RX, Shi L, Liu DC, Tang YH, Guo ZJ. Water-compatible magnetic imprinted nanoparticles served as solid-phase extraction sorbents for selective determination of trace 17beta-estradiol in environmental water samples by liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2015;1396:7–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Qiao L, Gan N, Hu FT, Wang D, Lan HZ, Li TH, et al. Magnetic nanospheres with a molecularly imprinted shell for the preconcentration of diethylstilbestrol. Microchim Acta. 2014;181(11-12):1341–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Wang S, Wang R, Wu X, Wang Y, Xue C, Wu J, et al. Magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles based on dendritic-grafting modification for determination of estrogens in plasma samples. J Chromatogr B. 2012;905:105–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lan HZ, Gan N, Pan DD, Hu FT, Li TH, Long NB, et al. Development of a novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer coating using porous zeolite imidazolate framework-8 coated magnetic iron oxide as carrier for automated solid phase microextraction of estrogens in fish and pork samples. J Chromatogr A. 2014;1365:35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lan HZ, Gan N, Pan DD, Hu FT, Li TH, Long NB, et al. An automated solid-phase microextraction method based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer as fiber coating for detection of trace estrogens in milk powder. J Chromatogr A. 2014;1331:10–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rao W, Cai R, Yin YL, Long F, Zhang ZH. Magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted polymers based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for rapid selective solid-phase extraction of 4-nonylphenol in aqueous samples. Talanta. 2014;128:170–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ji YS, Yin JJ, Xu ZG, Zhao CD, Huang HY, Zhang HX, et al. Preparation of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for rapid determination of bisphenol A in environmental water and milk samples. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2009;395(4):1125–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lv YK, He YD, Xiong X, Wang JZ, Wang HY, Han YM. Layer-by-layer fabrication of restricted access media-molecularly imprinted magnetic microspheres for magnetic dispersion microextraction of bisphenol A from milk samples. New J Chem. 2015;39(3):1792–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Wu X, Li YR, Zhu XL, He CY, Wang Q, Liu SR. Dummy molecularly imprinted magnetic nanoparticles for dispersive solid-phase extraction and determination of bisphenol A in water samples and orange juice. Talanta. 2017;162:57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Wang M, She YX, Du XW, Huang YT, Shi XM, Jin MJ, et al. Determination of melamine using magnetic molecular imprinted polymers and high performance liquid chromatography. Anal Lett. 2013;46(1):120–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Zhao XY, Chen LG. Analysis of melamine in milk powder by using a magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer based on carbon nanotubes with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci. 2016;39(19):3775–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    He D, Zhang XP, Gao B, Wang L, Zhao Q, Chen HY, et al. Preparation of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the extraction of melamine from milk followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Food Control. 2014;36(1):36–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Su XM, Li XY, Li JJ, Liu M, Lei FH, Tan XC, et al. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for solid-phase extraction and determination of rhodamine B in food. Food Chem. 2015;171:292–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Piao CY, Chen LG. Separation of Sudan dyes from chilli powder by magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer. J Chromatogr A. 2012;1268:185–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Xie XY, Chen L, Pan XY, Wang SC. Synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer strategy and its application in the Sudan dyes residue analysis. J Chromatogr A. 2015;1405:32–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Tan L, He R, Chen KC, Peng RF, Huang C, Yang R, et al. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry for determination of aflatoxins using dummy molecularly imprinted polymers deposited on silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Microchim Acta. 2016;183(4):1469–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Urraca J, Huertas-Perez JF, Cazorla GA, Gracia-Mora J, Garcia-Campana AM, Moreno-Bondi MC. Development of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction: determination of citrinin in rice samples by liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2016;408(11):3033–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Gao RX, Zhang LL, Hao Y, Cui XH, Liu DC, Zhang M, et al. One-step preparation of magnetic imprinted nanoparticles adopting dopamine-cupric ion as a co-monomer for the specific recognition of bovine hemoglobin. J Sep Sci. 2015;38(20):3568–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Zhang M, Wang YZ, Jia XP, He MZ, Xu ML, Yang S, et al. The preparation of magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for the recognition of bovine hemoglobin. Talanta. 2014;120:376–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Sun YH, Chen J, Li YQ, Li H, Zhu XH, Hu YW, et al. Bio-inspired magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers based on Pickering emulsions for selective protein recognition. New J Chem. 2016;40(10):8745–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Li YX, Chen YT, Huang L, Lou BY, Chen GN. Creating BHb-imprinted magnetic nanoparticles with multiple binding sites. Analyst. 2017;142(2):302–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Gai QQ, Qu F, Zhang T, Zhang YK. The preparation of bovine serum albumin surface-imprinted superparamagnetic polymer with the assistance of basic functional monomer and its application for protein separation. J Chromatogr A. 2011;1218(22):3489–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Chen FF, Zhao WF, Zhang JJ, Kong J. Magnetic two-dimensional molecularly imprinted materials for the recognition and separation of proteins. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2016;18(2):718–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Bei ZJ, Chen Y, Ye J, Wang SS, Liu Z. Boronate-affinity glycan-oriented surface imprinting: a new strategy to mimic lectins for the recognition of an intact glycoprotein and its characteristic fragments. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2015;54(35):10211–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Sun LX, Lin DH, Lin GW, Wang L, Lin ZA. Click synthesis of boronic acid-functionalized molecularly imprinted silica nanoparticles with polydopamine coating for enrichment of trace glycoproteins. Anal Methods. 2015;7(23):10026–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Ma RT, Ha W, Chen J, Shi YP. Highly dispersed magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles with well-defined thin film for the selective extraction of glycoprotein. J Mater Chem B Mater Biol Med. 2016;4(15):2620–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Guo LX, Hu XL, Guan P, Du CB, Wang D, Song DM, et al. Facile preparation of superparamagnetic surface-imprinted microspheres using amino acid as template for specific capture of thymopentin. Appl Surf Sci. 2015;357:1490–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Xu XQ, Deng CH, Gao MX, Yu WJ, Yang PY, Zhang XM. Synthesis of magnetic microspheres with immobilized metal ions for enrichment and direct determination of phosphopeptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Adv Mater. 2006;18(24):3289–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Liu YB, Wang SS, Zhang C, Su X, Huang S, Zhao MP. Enhancing the selectivity of enzyme detection by using tailor-made nanoparticles. Anal Chem. 2013;85(10):4853–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Wan W, Han Q, Zhang XQ, Xie YM, Sun JP, Ding MY. Selective enrichment of proteins for MALDI-TOF MS analysis based on molecular imprinting. Chem Commun. 2015;51(17):3541–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Qin YP, Li DY, He XW, Li WY, Zhang YK. Preparation of high-efficiency cytochrome c-imprinted polymer on the surface of magnetic carbon nanotubes by epitope approach via metal chelation and six-membered ring. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016;8(16):10155–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Duan HM, Wang XJ, Wang YH, Sun YL, Li JB, Luo CN. An ultrasensitive lysozyme chemiluminescence biosensor based on surface molecular imprinting using ionic liquid modified magnetic graphene oxide/β-cyclodextrin as supporting material. Anal Chim Acta. 2016;918:89–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Tan L, Yu Z, Zhou X, Xing D, Luo X, Peng R, et al. Antibody-free ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry measurement of angiotensin I and II using magnetic epitope-imprinted polymers. J Chromatogr A. 2015;1411:69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Madrakian T, Afkhami A, Mahmood-Kashani H, Ahmadi M. Superparamagnetic surface molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for sensitive solid-phase extraction of tramadol from urine samples. Talanta. 2013;105:255–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Kolaei M, Dashtian K, Rafiee Z, Ghaedi M. Ultrasonic-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction of morphine in urine samples by new imprinted polymer-supported on MWCNT-Fe3O4-NPs: central composite design optimization. Ultrason Sonochem. 2016;33:240–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Yang ZY, Cai QZ, Chen N, Zhou XM, Hong JL. Selective separation and identification of metabolite groups of Polygonum cuspidatum extract in rat plasma using dispersion solid-phase extraction by magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers coupled with LC/Q-TOF-MS. RSC Adv. 2016;6(15):12193–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Svetushkina E, Puretskiy N, Ionov L, Stamm M, Synytska A. A comparative study on switchable adhesion between thermoresponsive polymer brushes on flat and rough surfaces. Soft Matter. 2011;7:5691–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Wu Q, Wu DP, Guan YF. In vivo fast equilibrium microextraction by stable and biocompatible nanofiber membrane sandwiched in microfluidic device. Anal Chem. 2013;85(23):11524–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Zhu CH, Lu Y, Chen JF, Yu SH. Photothermal poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/Fe3O4 nanocomposite hydrogel as a movable position heating source under remote control. Small. 2014;10(14):2796–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Han H, Lee JY, Lu XM. Thermoresponsive nanoparticles + plasmonic nanoparticles = photoresponsive heterodimers: Facile synthesis and sunlight-induced reversible clustering. Chem Commun. 2013;49(55):6122–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of ChemistrySun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryGuangdong University of EducationGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations