Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 410, Issue 8, pp 2253–2262 | Cite as

Paper-based immune-affinity arrays for detection of multiple mycotoxins in cereals

  • Li LiEmail author
  • Hongpu Chen
  • Xiaolan Lv
  • Min Wang
  • Xizhi Jiang
  • Yifei Jiang
  • Heye Wang
  • Yongfu Zhao
  • Liru Xia
Research Paper


Mycotoxins produced by different species of fungi may coexist in cereals and feedstuffs, and could be highly toxic for humans and animals. For quantification of multiple mycotoxins in cereals, we developed a paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity array. First, paper-based microzone arrays were fabricated by photolithography. Then, monoclonal mycotoxin antibodies were added in a copolymerization reaction with a cross-linker to form an immune-affinity monolith on the paper-based microzone array. With use of a competitive immune-response format, paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity arrays were successfully applied to detect mycotoxins in samples. The detection limits for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and HT-2 toxin were 62.7, 10.8, 0.36, and 0.23 μg·kg-1, respectively, which meet relevant requirements for these compounds in food. The recovery rates were 81–86% for deoxynivalenol, 89–117% for zearalenone, 79–86% for T-2 toxin, and 78–83% for HT-2 toxin, and showed the paper-based immune-affinity arrays had good reproducibility. In summary, the paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity array provides a sensitive, rapid, accurate, stable, and convenient platform for detection of multiple mycotoxins in agro-foods.

Graphical abstract

Paper-based immune-affinity monolithic array. DON deoxynivalenol, HT-2 HT-2 toxin, T-2 T-2 toxin, PEGDA polyethylene glycol diacrylate, ZEN zearalenone


Paper-based array Immune-affinity array Mycotoxins UV-initiated copolymerization Chemiluminescent detection 



Bovine serum albumin




Coefficient of variation




Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay


Fumonisin B1


Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry


Glycidyl methacrylate


Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry


Horseradish peroxidase


HT-2 toxin


Limit of detection

PEG 200

Polyethylene glycol 200


Polyethylene glycol diacrylate


T-2 toxin


X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy





We gratefully acknowledge financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 11505081) and Jiangsu Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Fund (grant no. ZX(17)2010). We also thank the test center of Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Science for generously allowing us to detect some chemical properties of mycotoxin immune-affinity monoliths.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

216_2018_895_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (498 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 497 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Li Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hongpu Chen
    • 1
    • 3
  • Xiaolan Lv
    • 1
    • 2
  • Min Wang
    • 1
  • Xizhi Jiang
    • 1
  • Yifei Jiang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Heye Wang
    • 1
  • Yongfu Zhao
    • 1
  • Liru Xia
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Agricultural Facilities and EquipmentJiangsu Academy of Agricultural SciencesNanjingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory for Protected Agricultural Engineering in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River, Ministry of AgricultureNanjingChina
  3. 3.College of Food Science and TechnologyNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina

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