Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 410, Issue 4, pp 1257–1263 | Cite as

Microbial biosensing of ciprofloxacin residues in food by a portable lens-free CCD-based analyzer

  • Wei-Chen Kao
  • Shimshon Belkin
  • Ji-Yen Cheng
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Microbial Biosensors for Analytical Applications


We present a rapid and simple approach for sensitive detection of antibiotic residues in food samples based on luminescence induction by live bacterial sensor strains integrated into a CCD-based lens-free optical analyzer (LumiSense). Using ciprofloxacin as a model antibiotic, we demonstrate response times of between 20 and 80 min, and detection thresholds of 8 ng/mL for milk, egg white, and chicken essence, and 64 ng/mL for egg yolk. These values are below the minimal allowed values as defined by European Union regulations. Although not intended to replace traditional analytical equipment and regulation-approved methods, LumiSense and similar systems, sample preparation for which involves only simple mixing, dilution, and homogenization, may nevertheless provide a simple means for high-throughput food sample screening.

Graphical abstract

Detection of bioluminescence from genetically modified bacteria offers a simple and effective way for monitoring an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, in milk without prior sample preparation


Antibiotics Whole cell biosensor  Microbial biosensor Milk Eggs Chicken essence 



We are grateful to the Taiwanese-Israeli program for scientific research cooperation administered by the Israeli Ministry of Science and the Taiwanese Ministry of Science and Technology (NSC 102-2923-M-001-04-MY2, MOST 106-2113-M-001-018), to the Research Program on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, and to the Hebrew University-Academia Sinica Joint Research Program on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Work in the Belkin laboratory was also partially supported by the Minerva Center for Bio-hybrid Complex Systems and by the NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme project 985042.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

216_2017_792_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (274 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 274 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for Applied SciencesAcademia SinicaTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life SciencesThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic EngineeringNational Taiwan Ocean UniversityKeelungTaiwan
  4. 4.Institute of BiophotonicsNational Yang-Ming UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  5. 5.College of EngineeringChang Gung EngineeringTaoyuanTaiwan

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