Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 410, Issue 3, pp 1111–1121 | Cite as

Functional electrospun nanofibers for multimodal sensitive detection of biogenic amines in food via a simple dipstick assay

  • Nadezhda S. Yurova
  • Alexandra Danchuk
  • Sarah N. Mobarez
  • Nongnoot Wongkaew
  • Tatiana Rusanova
  • Antje J. Baeumner
  • Axel DuerkopEmail author
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. ABCs 16th Anniversary


Electrospun nanofibers (ENFs) are promising materials for rapid diagnostic tests like lateral flow assays and dipsticks because they offer an immense surface area while excluding minimal volume, a variety of functional surface groups, and can entrap functional additives within their interior. Here, we show that ENFs on sample pads are superior in comparison to standard polymer membranes for the optical detection of biogenic amines (BAs) in food using a dipstick format. Specifically, cellulose acetate (CA) fibers doped with 2 mg/mL of the chromogenic and fluorogenic amine-reactive chameleon dye Py-1 were electrospun into uniform anionic mats. Those extract cationic BAs from real samples and Py-1 transduces BA concentrations into a change of color, reflectance, and fluorescence. Dropping a BA sample onto the nanofiber mat converts the weakly fluorescent pyrylium dye Py-1 into a strongly red emitting pyridinium dye. For the first time, a simple UV lamp excites fluorescence and a digital camera acts as detector. The intensity ratio of the red to the blue channel of the digital image is dependent on the concentration of most relevant BAs indicating food spoilage from 10 to 250 μM. This matches the permitted limits for BAs in foods and no false positive signals arise from secondary and tertiary amines. BA detection in seafood samples was also demonstrated successfully. The nanofiber mat dipsticks were up to sixfold more sensitive than those using a polymer membrane with the same dye embedded. Hence, nanofiber-based tests are not only superior to polymer-based dipstick assays, but will also improve the performance of established tests related to food safety, medical diagnostics, and environmental testing.

Graphical Absract


Biogenic amines Electrospun nanofibers Rapid diagnostic Food analysis Fluorescence Dipstick 



NY and AD gratefully acknowledge support by the DFG and the Russian Ministry of Education for project 16.674.2016/DAAD and 16.751.2016/DAAD.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

216_2017_696_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (613 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 613 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and BiosensorsUniversity of RegensburgRegensburgGermany
  2. 2.Institute of ChemistryNational Research Saratov State UniversitySaratovRussian Federation

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