Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 409, Issue 24, pp 5711–5721 | Cite as

Optical biosensor optimized for continuous in-line glucose monitoring in animal cell culture

  • Mircea Tric
  • Mario Lederle
  • Lisa Neuner
  • Igor Dolgowjasow
  • Philipp Wiedemann
  • Stefan Wölfl
  • Tobias Werner
Research Paper


Biosensors for continuous glucose monitoring in bioreactors could provide a valuable tool for optimizing culture conditions in biotechnological applications. We have developed an optical biosensor for long-term continuous glucose monitoring and demonstrated a tight glucose level control during cell culture in disposable bioreactors. The in-line sensor is based on a commercially available oxygen sensor that is coated with cross-linked glucose oxidase (GOD). The dynamic range of the sensor was tuned by a hydrophilic perforated diffusion membrane with an optimized permeability for glucose and oxygen. The biosensor was thoroughly characterized by experimental data and numerical simulations, which enabled insights into the internal concentration profile of the deactivating by-product hydrogen peroxide. The simulations were carried out with a one-dimensional biosensor model and revealed that, in addition to the internal hydrogen peroxide concentration, the turnover rate of the enzyme GOD plays a crucial role for biosensor stability. In the light of this finding, the glucose sensor was optimized to reach a long functional stability (>52 days) under continuous glucose monitoring conditions with a dynamic range of 0–20 mM and a response time of t 90 ≤ 10 min. In addition, we demonstrated that the sensor was sterilizable with beta and UV irradiation and only subjected to minor cross sensitivity to oxygen, when an oxygen reference sensor was applied.

Graphical abstract

Measuring setup of a glucose biosensor in a shake flask for continuous glucose monitoring in mammalian cell culture


Optical biosensor Glucose monitoring Bioreactor Cell culture 



We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) program of the German Science & Engineering Foundation (0101-31P7809) and the support from Steinbeis Zentrum für Angewandte Biologische Chemie, Mannheim and PreSens GmbH, Regensburg.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

216_2017_511_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (132 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 132 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mircea Tric
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mario Lederle
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lisa Neuner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Igor Dolgowjasow
    • 2
  • Philipp Wiedemann
    • 3
  • Stefan Wölfl
    • 1
  • Tobias Werner
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology (IPMB)Heidelberg UniversityHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Analytical ChemistryUniversity of Applied Sciences MannheimMannheimGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Molecular and Cell BiologyUniversity of Applied Sciences MannheimMannheimGermany

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