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Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 409, Issue 20, pp 4729–4739 | Cite as

Design of a novel electrochemical biosensor based on intramolecular G-quadruplex DNA for selective determination of lead(II) ions

  • Maryam Ebrahimi
  • Jahan Bakhsh RaoofEmail author
  • Reza Ojani
Research Paper

Abstract

An electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a G-quadruplex (G4) for the sensitive determination of Pb2+ was reported using a carbon paste electrode (CPE) or a multi-walled carbon nanotube paste electrode (MWCNTPE) as working electrodes, ethyl green (EG) as a new G4 intercalator, and a single-stranded nucleic acid sequence rich in guanine (G) as DNA probe. Electrochemical determination of Pb2+ relied on probe structural changes from single - stranded to the stabilized intramolecular G4 in the presence of Pb2+, which caused a change in the current of the EG reduction peak due to the intercalation of EG into the G4 structure. The change in the reduction peak of EG before and after its intercalation into the stabilized G4 (∆I) had a linear correlation to the concentration of Pb2+ ions. The linear ranges of 4.0 × 10−10–5.0 × 10−9 M and 2 × 10−7–1 × 1−5 M with a detection limit (LOD) of 1.04 × 10−10 M were obtained using CPE, while improved linear ranges of 4.0 × 10−11–1.0 × 10−9 M and 2 × 10−7–1 × 10−5 M with a lower LOD of 2.64 × 10−11 M were achieved using the MWCNTPE biosensor. The biosensors exhibited satisfactory results in terms of selectivity and practical applicability in the analysis of real samples.

Graphical abstract

The principle of the electrochemical sensing of Pb2+ based on intramolecular G-quadruplex using EG.

Keywords

Lead ion Intramolecular G-quadruplex Carbon nanotubes Ethyl green DNA biosensor 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

This work does not contain any studies with human participants or animals.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maryam Ebrahimi
    • 1
  • Jahan Bakhsh Raoof
    • 1
    Email author
  • Reza Ojani
    • 1
  1. 1.Eletroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of MazandaranBabolsarIran

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