Single cell HaloChip assay on paper for point-of-care diagnosis
This article describes a paper-based low cost single cell HaloChip assay that can be used to assess drug- and radiation-induced DNA damage at point-of-care. Printing ink on paper effectively blocks fluorescence of paper materials, provides high affinity to charged polyelectrolytes, and prevents penetration of water in paper. After exposure to drug or ionizing radiation, cells are patterned on paper to create discrete and ordered single cell arrays, embedded inside an agarose gel, lysed with alkaline solution to allow damaged DNA fragments to diffuse out of nucleus cores, and form diffusing halos in the gel matrix. After staining DNA with a fluorescent dye, characteristic halos formed around cells, and the level of DNA damage can be quantified by determining sizes of halos and nucleus with an image processing program based on MATLAB. With its low fabrication cost and easy operation, this HaloChip on paper platform will be attractive to rapidly and accurately determine DNA damage for point-of-care evaluation of drug efficacy and radiation condition.
KeywordsPoint-of-care diagnosis Paper-based assay DNA damage Single cell array
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