Screening new psychoactive substances in urban wastewater using high resolution mass spectrometry
- 669 Downloads
Analysis of drug residues in urban wastewater could complement epidemiological studies in detecting the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS), a continuously changing group of drugs hard to monitor by classical methods. We initially selected 52 NPS potentially used in Italy based on seizure data and consumption alerts provided by the Antidrug Police Department and the National Early Warning System. Using a linear ion trap-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometer, we designed a suspect screening and a target method approach and compared them for the analysis of 24 h wastewater samples collected at the treatment plant influents of four Italian cities. This highlighted the main limitations of these two approaches, so we could propose requirements for future research. A library of MS/MS spectra of 16 synthetic cathinones and 19 synthetic cannabinoids, for which analytical standards were acquired, was built at different collision energies and is available on request. The stability of synthetic cannabinoids was studied in analytical standards and wastewater, identifying the best analytical conditions for future studies. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first stability data on NPS. Few suspects were identified in Italian wastewater samples, in accordance with recent epidemiological data reporting a very low prevalence of use of NPS in Italy. This study outlines an analytical approach for NPS identification and measurement in urban wastewater and for estimating their use in the population.
KeywordsLiquid chromatography High resolution mass spectrometry New psychoactive substances Urban wastewater
This study was supported by Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga (Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, Rome, Project Aqua Drugs) and by Regione Lombardia (Progetto Innovativo IX/000407-2010).
The authors are very grateful to Thermo Scientific for providing the software TraceFinder™ and to Frans Schoutsen for technical support
IGM extends her gratitude to the Galician Council of Culture, Education and Universities for her postdoctoral contract (Plan Galego de Investigación, Innovación e Crecemento 2011–2015).
EGL acknowledges the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development, and demonstration under Grant Agreement No. [Marie Curie-FP7-PEOPLE Grant no. 317205] for her Experienced Researcher (ER) contract.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- 1.European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Europol. 2013 annual report on the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA. Implementation reports. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union; 2014Google Scholar
- 2.European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). New psychoactive substances in Europe. An update from the EU Early Warning System. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union; 2015.Google Scholar
- 10.European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). Synthetic cannabinoids and “Spice” drug profile. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/drug-profiles/synthetic-cannabinoids. Accessed Oct 2015.
- 14.European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). The EU early warning system. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/themes/new-drugs/early-warning. Accessed April 2014.
- 33.Sundström M, Pelander A, Angerer V, Hutter M, Kneisel S, Ojanperä I. A high-sensitivity ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-TOFMS) method for screening synthetic cannabinoids and other drugs of abuse in urine. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:8463–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga, Sistema Nazionale di Allerta Precoce, National Early Warning System. Nuove Sostanze Psicoattive – NPS. Roma. October 2013.Google Scholar
- 35.Castiglioni S, Bijlsma L, Covaci A, Emke E, Hernández F, Reid M, et al. Evaluation of uncertainties associated with the determination of community drug use through the measurement of sewage drug biomarkers. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:1452–60.Google Scholar
- 36.Scripps Center For Metabolomics (METLIN) Metabolite search. https://metlin.scripps.edu/metabo_search_alt2.php. Accessed April 2014.
- 38.European Commission. Decision 2002/657/EC implementing Council Directive 96/23/EC establishing criteria and procedures for the validation of analytical methods to ensure the quality and comparability of analytical results. 2002.Google Scholar