Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 408, Issue 19, pp 5137–5145 | Cite as

Detection of zinc oxide and cerium dioxide nanoparticles during drinking water treatment by rapid single particle ICP-MS methods

  • Ariel R. Donovan
  • Craig D. Adams
  • Yinfa Ma
  • Chady Stephan
  • Todd Eichholz
  • Honglan Shi
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Single-particle-ICP-MS Advances

Abstract

Nanoparticles (NPs) entering water systems are an emerging concern as NPs are more frequently manufactured and used. Single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) methods were validated to detect Zn- and Ce-containing NPs in surface and drinking water using a short dwell time of 0.1 ms or lower, ensuring precision in single particle detection while eliminating the need for sample preparation. Using this technique, information regarding NP size, size distribution, particle concentration, and dissolved ion concentrations was obtained simultaneously. The fates of Zn- and Ce-NPs, including those found in river water and added engineered NPs, were evaluated by simulating a typical drinking water treatment process. Lime softening, alum coagulation, powdered activated carbon sorption, and disinfection by free chlorine were simulated sequentially using river water. Lime softening removed 38–53 % of Zn-containing and ZnO NPs and >99 % of Ce-containing and CeO2 NPs. Zn-containing and ZnO NP removal increased to 61–74 % and 77–79 % after alum coagulation and disinfection, respectively. Source and drinking water samples were collected from three large drinking water treatment facilities and analyzed for Zn- and Ce-containing NPs. Each facility had these types of NPs present. In all cases, particle concentrations were reduced by a minimum of 60 % and most were reduced by >95 % from source water to finished drinking water. This study concludes that uncoated ZnO and CeO2 NPs may be effectively removed by conventional drinking water treatments including lime softening and alum coagulation.

Keywords

Single particle ICP-MS ZnO and CeO2 nanoparticles Nanoparticle occurrence and removal Nanoparticle characterization Drinking water treatment 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ariel R. Donovan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Craig D. Adams
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yinfa Ma
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chady Stephan
    • 4
  • Todd Eichholz
    • 5
  • Honglan Shi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental Research CenterMissouri University of Science and TechnologyRollaUSA
  2. 2.Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell, and Single Molecule Monitoring (CS3M)RollaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  4. 4.PerkinElmer, IncWoodbridgeCanada
  5. 5.Missouri Department of Natural ResourcesJefferson CityUSA

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