Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 408, Issue 12, pp 3309–3317 | Cite as

Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in human blood as markers for ruptured silicone gel-filled breast implants

  • Pia Rosendahl
  • Joerg Hippler
  • Oliver J. SchmitzEmail author
  • Oliver Hoffmann
  • Peter Rusch
Research Paper


The replacement of medical-grade silicone with industrial-grade silicone material in some silicone gel-filled breast implants (SBI) manufactured by Poly Implant Prothèse and Rofil Medical Nederland B.V., reported in 2010, which resulted in a higher rupture tendency of these SBI, demonstrates the need for non-invasive, sensitive monitoring and screening methods. Therefore a sensitive method based on large volume injection–gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LVI-GC/MS) was developed to determine octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclo-hexasiloxane (D6) in blood samples from women with intact (n = 13) and ruptured SBI (n = 11). With dichloromethane extraction, sample cooling during preparation, and analysis extraction efficiencies up to 100 % and limits of detection of 0.03–0.05 ng D4–D6/g blood were achieved. Blood samples from women with SBI were investigated. In contrast to women with intact SBI, in blood from women with ruptured SBI higher D4 and D6 concentrations up to 0.57 ng D4/g blood and 0.16 ng D6/g blood were detected. With concentrations above 0.18 D4 ng/blood and 0.10 ng D6/g blood as significant criteria for ruptured SBI, this developed analytical preoperative diagnostic method shows a significant increase of the recognition rate. Finally a higher precision (error rate 17 %) than the commonly used clinical diagnostic method, mamma sonography (error rate 46 %), was achieved.

Graphical Abstract

Comparison of the recognition rate of silicone breast implant failures via commonly used clinical diagnostic method (mamma sonography) and developed analytical method (determination of cyclic volatile siloxanes concentration in human blood with LVI-GC-MS)


Siloxanes Human blood Silicone breast implants Large volume injection GC/MS 



The authors thank the patients who participated in this study and furthermore Macherey-Nagel, Axel Semrau, and Gerstel for their support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest


Conflict of interest

All research on human subjects presented in this paper was conducted in accordance with the ethical research standards prescribed by the responsible institutional committee on human experimentation and with the WMA Declaration of Helsinki as its 7th revision in 2013. Informed consent was obtained from all human subjects participating in the study.

Supplementary material

216_2016_9401_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (166 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 166 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pia Rosendahl
    • 1
  • Joerg Hippler
    • 1
  • Oliver J. Schmitz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Oliver Hoffmann
    • 2
  • Peter Rusch
    • 2
  1. 1.Applied Analytical ChemistryUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of MedicineUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany

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