Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 408, Issue 11, pp 3033–3042 | Cite as

Development of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction: determination of citrinin in rice samples by liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection

  • Javier L. UrracaEmail author
  • José F. Huertas-Pérez
  • Guillermo Aragoneses Cazorla
  • Jesus Gracia-Mora
  • Ana M. García-Campaña
  • María Cruz Moreno-BondiEmail author
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Young Investigators in Analytical and Bioanalytical Science


In this work, we report the synthesis of novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (m-MIPs) and their application to the selective extraction of the mycotoxin citrinin (CIT) from food samples. The polymers were prepared by surface imprinting of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, using 2-naphtholic acid (2-NA) as template molecule, N-3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl-N'-4-vinylphenyl urea and methacrylamide as functional monomers and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker. The resulting material was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies (FT-IR). The polymers were used to develop a solid-phase extraction method (m-MISPE) for the selective recovery of CIT from rice extracts prior to its determination by HPLC with UV diode array detection. The method involves ultrasound-assisted extraction of the mycotoxin from rice samples with (7:3, v/v) methanol/water, followed by sample cleanup and preconcentration with m-MIP. The extraction (washing and elution) conditions were optimized and their optimal values found to provide CIT recoveries of 94–98 % with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 3.4 % (n = 3) for preconcentrated sample extracts (5 mL) fortified with the analyte at concentrations over the range 25–100 μg kg−1. Based on the results, the application of the m-MIPs facilitates the accurate and efficient determination of CIT in rice extracts.

Graphical Abstract

Novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (m-MIPs) for citrinin (CIT) have been obtained and applied to the selective extraction of the mycotoxin from rice samples


Citrinin Mycotoxins Molecular imprinting Cleanup Rice 



This work has been supported by MINECO (CTQ2012-37573-C02-02). J.L. Urraca thanks the CEI-Moncloa for a post-doctoral contract. J Gracia-Mora thanks PASPA-UNAM and CONACyT for a grant for his sabbatical leave.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

216_2016_9348_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.3 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 1280 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Javier L. Urraca
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • José F. Huertas-Pérez
    • 3
  • Guillermo Aragoneses Cazorla
    • 1
  • Jesus Gracia-Mora
    • 4
  • Ana M. García-Campaña
    • 3
  • María Cruz Moreno-Bondi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Chemical Optosensors and Applied Photochemistry Group (GSOLFA), Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of ChemistryComplutense UniversityMadridSpain
  2. 2.CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPMMadridSpain
  3. 3.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Inorganic ChemistryNational Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM)MexicoMexico

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