Plasmonic SERS biosensing nanochips for DNA detection
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The development of rapid, cost-effective DNA detection methods for molecular diagnostics at the point-of-care (POC) has been receiving increasing interest. This article reviews several DNA detection techniques based on plasmonic-active nanochip platforms developed in our laboratory over the last 5 years, including the molecular sentinel-on-chip (MSC), the multiplex MSC, and the inverse molecular sentinel-on-chip (iMS-on-Chip). DNA probes were used as the recognition elements, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was used as the signal detection method. Sensing mechanisms were based on hybridization of target sequences and DNA probes, resulting in a distance change between SERS reporters and the nanochip’s plasmonic-active surface. As the field intensity of the surface plasmon decays exponentially as a function of distance, the distance change in turn affects SERS signal intensity, thus indicating the presence and capture of the target sequences. Our techniques were single-step DNA detection techniques. Target sequences were detected by simple delivery of sample solutions onto DNA probe-functionalized nanochips and measuring the SERS signal after appropriate incubation times. Target sequence labeling or washing to remove unreacted components was not required, making the techniques simple, easy-to-use, and cost-effective. The usefulness of the nanochip platform-based techniques for medical diagnostics was illustrated by the detection of host genetic biomarkers for respiratory viral infection and of the dengue virus gene.
KeywordsDNA detection Multiplex DNA detection DNA biosensor Surface-enhanced Raman scattering Molecular sentinel-on-chip
This work was sponsored by the Duke Faculty Exploratory Research Fund, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (HR0011-13-2-0003), the Department of Energy (DE-SC0014077), and the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation Endowment. Hoan Thanh Ngo is supported by Fellowships from the Vietnam Education Foundation and the Fitzpatrick Foundation. The content of the information does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Government, and no official endorsement should be inferred.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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