Fabric phase sorptive extraction followed by UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of benzotriazole UV stabilizers in sewage samples
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A fast and sensitive sample preparation strategy using fabric phase sorptive extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection has been developed to analyse benzotriazole UV stabilizer compounds in aqueous samples. Benzotriazole UV stabilizer compounds are a group of compounds added to sunscreens and other personal care products which may present detrimental effects to aquatic ecosystems. Fabric phase sorptive extraction is a novel solvent minimized sample preparation approach that integrates the advantages of sol–gel derived hybrid inorganic–organic nanocomposite sorbents and the flexible, permeable and hydrophobic surface chemistry of polyester fabric. It is a highly sensitive, fast, efficient and inexpensive device that can be reused and does not suffer from coating damage, unlike SPME fibres or stir bars. In this paper, we optimized the extraction of seven benzotriazole UV filters evaluating the majority of the parameters involved in the extraction process, such as sorbent chemistry selection, extraction time, back-extraction solvent, back-extraction time and the impact of ionic strength. Under the optimized conditions, fabric phase sorptive extraction allows enrichment factors of 10 times with detection limits ranging from 6.01 to 60.7 ng L−1 and intra- and inter-day % RSDs lower than 11 and 30 % for all compounds, respectively. The optimized sample preparation technique followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection was applied to determine the target analytes in sewage samples from wastewater treatment plants with different purification processes of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). Two UV stabilizer compounds were measured in ranges 17.0–60.5 ng mL−1 (UV 328) and 69.3–99.2 ng mL−1 (UV 360) in the three sewage water samples analysed.
KeywordsBenzotriazole UV stabilizers Fabric phase sorptive extraction UHPLC-MS/MS Sewage samples Personal care products Emerging pollutants Green sample preparation
Sarah Montesdeoca-Esponda thanks the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria for her position as support staff for research.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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