Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 407, Issue 17, pp 5211–5225 | Cite as

Determination of the triacylglycerol fraction in fish oil by comprehensive liquid chromatography techniques with the support of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry data

  • Marco Beccaria
  • Rosaria Costa
  • Giuseppe Sullini
  • Elisa Grasso
  • Francesco Cacciola
  • Paola Dugo
  • Luigi MondelloEmail author
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Lipidomics


Fish oil made from menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) can be used as a dietary supplement for the presence of high levels of the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids, viz. epentaenoic and docosahexanoic. In this work, for the first time, two different multidimensional approaches were developed and compared, in terms of peak capacity, for triacylglycerol characterization. In particular, silver ion chromatography with a silver-ion column and non-aqueous reverse-phase liquid chromatography with a C18 column were tested in both comprehensive (stop-flow) and off-line modes. The use of mass spectra attained by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for both LC approaches, and the fatty acids methyl esters profile of menhaden oil obtained by gas chromatography analysis, greatly supported the elucidation of the triacylglycerol content in menhaden oil. The off-line approach afforded a better separation and, thus, higher peak capacity to allow identifying and semiquantifying more than 250 triacylglycerols. Such a huge number has never been reported for a menhaden oil sample.The main disadvantage of such an approach over the stop-flow one was the longer analysis time, mainly attributable to solvent exchange between the two dimensions.

Graphical Abstract

Top: stop-flow Ag+-LC × RP-LC-APCI-MS plot of the TAGs in menhaden oil. Bottom: modulated detector response. Left: 2D analysis of a selected fraction


Triacylglycerols Polyunsaturated fatty acids Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography Fish oil Response factors Quantification 



This work has been carried out within the framework of the Research Project PRIN 2012: Assessment of quality and safety of Mediterranean seafoods by “omics” sciences, supported by the Italian Ministry of University and Scientific Research, no. 2012TLC44W.

Supplementary material

216_2015_8718_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (720 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 720 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Beccaria
    • 1
  • Rosaria Costa
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Sullini
    • 1
  • Elisa Grasso
    • 1
  • Francesco Cacciola
    • 2
  • Paola Dugo
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • Luigi Mondello
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Scienze del Farmaco e Prodotti per la Salute DepartmentUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly
  2. 2.Scienze dell’Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute DepartmentUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly
  3. 3.University Campus Bio-Medico of RomeRomeItaly
  4. 4.Chromaleont s.r.l., c/o Scienze del Farmaco e Prodotti per la Salute DepartmentUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly

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