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Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 407, Issue 16, pp 4779–4791 | Cite as

Spatial chemo-profiling of hypericin and related phytochemicals in Hypericum species using MALDI-HRMS imaging

Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Mass Spectrometry Imaging

Abstract

Advanced analytical imaging techniques, including matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (MALDI-HRMS) imaging, can be used to visualize the distribution, localization, and dynamics of target compounds and their precursors with limited sample preparation. Herein we report an application of MALDI-HRMS imaging to map, in high spatial resolution, the accumulation of the medicinally important naphthodianthrone hypericin, its structural analogues and proposed precursors, and other crucial phytochemical constituents in the leaves of two hypericin-containing species, Hypericum perforatum and Hypericum olympicum. We also investigated Hypericum patulum, which does not contain hypericin or its protoforms. We focused on both the secretory (dark glands, translucent glands, secretory canals, laminar glands, and ventral glands) and the surrounding non-secretory tissues to clarify the site of biosynthesis and localization of hypericin, its possible precursors, and patterns of localization of other related compounds concomitant to the presence or absence of hypericin. Hypericin, pseudohypericin, and protohypericin accumulate in the dark glands. However, the precursor emodin not only accumulates in the dark glands but is also present outside the glands in both hypericin-containing species. In hypericin-lacking H. patulum, however, emodin typically accumulates only in the glands, thereby providing evidence that hypericin is possibly biosynthesized outside the dark glands and thereafter stored in them. The distribution and localization of related compounds were also evaluated and are discussed concomitant to the occurrence of hypericin. Our study provides the basis for further detailed investigation of hypericin biosynthesis by gene discovery and expression studies.

Keywords

High-resolution mass spectrometry Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging Hypericum perforatumHypericum olympicumHypericum patulum THUNB Hypericin Biosynthesis Dark glands 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was funded in part by the grant project SOFOS-knowledge and skill development of staff and students of P. J. Safarik University in Kosice (contract number: 003/2013/1.2/OPV, ITMS code: 26110230088), funded by the European Social Fund through the Operational Program Education. S.K. was the tutor assigned to supervise and train K.N. within the scope of the SOFOS grant project. We thank the German Research Foundation (DFG) for financing the MALDI imaging high-resolution mass spectrometers and the Scientific Grant Agency of Slovak Republic VEGA 1/0090/15. We gratefully acknowledge Dr S. Zühlke (INFU, TU Dortmund) for valuable discussions, technical assistance, and critically reviewing our manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

216_2015_8682_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.4 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 1.35 mb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Research (INFU), Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Chair of Environmental Chemistry and Analytical ChemistryTU DortmundDortmundGermany
  2. 2.P. J. Safarik University in Kosice, Faculty of ScienceInstitute of Biology and EcologyKosiceSlovakia

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