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Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 407, Issue 17, pp 4927–4948 | Cite as

Stimuli-responsive materials in analytical separation

  • Rosa A. Lorenzo
  • Antonia M. Carro
  • Angel Concheiro
  • Carmen Alvarez-LorenzoEmail author
Review

Abstract

This review focuses on the fundamentals of stimuli-responsive materials and their applications to three common separation techniques, namely extraction, chromatography, and electrophoresis. Although still little investigated, materials that switch their affinity for the analyte on and off as a function of tiny changes in physical and biochemical variables offer relevant advantages for analyte extraction, concentration, and separation. Temperature and/or pH-responsive polymers in the form of chains or networks, which are dispersed in the sample as free entities or after being grafted onto beads (which may incorporate magnetic cores), enable quantitative capture and/or elution of the analyte under mild conditions and without needing organic solvents. Regarding liquid-chromatography separation, responsive stationary phases enable the implementation of “all-in-water” procedures in which retention times are modulated by means of temperature or pH gradients. Other stimuli that can be externally applied, for example light or magnetic fields, can also be used for efficient extraction or separation of the target substance without altering the composition of the sample matrix. Moreover, stimuli-responsiveness enables straightforward recycling of solid and/or stationary phases for a prolonged lifetime. Improved understanding of the phase transitions of stimuli-responsive materials and design of suitable formats for analytical applications should enable wider and more successful application of stimuli-responsive materials in analytical separations.

Graphical Abstract

Responsive materials that reversibly switch their affinity for the analyte on and off offer relevant advantages for analyte extraction, concentration, and separation

Keywords

Capillary electrophoresis HPLC Extraction (SPE) Stimuli-responsive stationary phases Green chromatography MIPs 

Abbreviations

AAC

Acrylic acid

AAm

Acrylamide

AEMA

Aminoethyl methacrylate

AIBN

Azobisisobutyronitrile

AMPS

2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid

APTAC

(3-Acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride

ATRP

Atom-transfer radical polymerization

BiP

[1,1ʹ-Biphenyl]-4,4ʹ-diol

BMA

Butyl methacrylate

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

CMC

Carboxymethylcellulose

DMAEMA

2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate

DMAPAAm

N,N-(Dimethylamino)propylacrylamide

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

dSPE

Dispersive solid-phase extraction

EOF

Electroosmotic flow

HILIC

Hydrophilic-interaction chromatography

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

IT-SPME

In-tube solid-phase microextraction

LCST

Lower critical solution temperature

MAA

Methacrylic acid

MAPASA

4-[(4-Methacryloyloxy)phenylazo]benzenesulfonic acid

MEO2MA

2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate

MIP

Molecularly imprinted polymer

MPABA

4-[(4-Methacryloyloxy)phenylazo]benzoic acid

NIP

Non-imprinted polymer

NIPAAm

N-Isopropyl acrylamide

OEG

Oligo(ethylene glycol)

PNIPAAm

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)

PTH

Phenylthiohydantoin

RP-HPLC

Reversed-phase HPLC

SPE

Solid-phase extraction

SPME

Solid-phase microextraction

tBAAm

N-tert-Butylacrylamide

TBBPA

3,3ʹ,5,5ʹ-Tetrabromobisphenol A

TBP

p-tert-Butylphenol

TRIM

Trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate

UCST

Upper critical solution temperature

VPBA

4-Vinylphenylboronic acid

VPy

Vinylpyridine

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by MICINN Spain (SAF2011-22771), Xunta de Galicia (CN 2012/045), and FEDER.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosa A. Lorenzo
    • 1
  • Antonia M. Carro
    • 1
  • Angel Concheiro
    • 2
  • Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Química Analítica, Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de QuímicaUniversidad de Santiago de CompostelaSantiago de CompostelaSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad de Santiago de CompostelaSantiago de CompostelaSpain

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