Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of urine for prostate cancer detection: a preliminary study
- First Online:
- 704 Downloads
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra were obtained from urine samples from subjects diagnosed with prostate cancer as well as from healthy controls, using Au nanoparticles as substrates. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the spectral data, followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA), leads to a classification model with a sensitivity of 100 %, a specificity of 89 %, and an overall diagnostic accuracy of 95 %. Even considering the very limited number of samples involved in this report, preliminary results from this approach are extremely promising, encouraging further investigation.
KeywordsSERS Raman Prostate cancer Urine Nanoparticles
- 4.Brereton RG (2003) Chemometrics: data analysis for the laboratory and chemical plant. John Wiley & Sons, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
- 5.Varmuza K, Filzmoser P (2009) Introduction to multivariate statistical analysis in chemometrics. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- 8.R Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL http://www.R-project.org/.
- 9.Beleites C, Sergo V (2014) ‘hyperSpec: a package to handle hyperspectral data sets in R’, R package version 0.98, URL http://hyperspec.r-forge.r-project.org
- 10.Liland KH, Mevik B-H (2015) Baseline: baseline correction of spectra. R package version 1.1-2. URL http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=baseline
- 12.Venables WN, Ripley BD (2002) Modern applied statistics with S (4th ed.), Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 13.Kuhn M, Wing J, Weston S, Williams A, Keefer C, Engelhardt A, Cooper T, Mayer Z, Kenkel B, the R Core Team and Benesty M. (2014). Caret: classification and regression training. R package version 6.0-37. URL http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=caret
- 17.Bouatra S, Aziat F, Mandal R, Guo AC, Wilson MR, Knox C, Bjorndahl TC, Krishnamurthy R, Saleem F, Liu P, Dame ZT, Poelzer J, Huynh J, Yallou FS, Psychogios N, Dong E, Bogumil R, Roehring C, Wishart DS (2013) The human urine metabolome. PLoS ONE 8:e73076. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar