Automated solid-phase extraction coupled online with HPLC-FLD for the quantification of zearalenone in edible oil
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Established maximum levels for the mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) in edible oil require monitoring by reliable analytical methods. Therefore, an automated SPE-HPLC online system based on dynamic covalent hydrazine chemistry has been developed. The SPE step comprises a reversible hydrazone formation by ZEN and a hydrazine moiety covalently attached to a solid phase. Seven hydrazine materials with different properties regarding the resin backbone, pore size, particle size, specific surface area, and loading have been evaluated. As a result, a hydrazine-functionalized silica gel was chosen. The final automated online method was validated and applied to the analysis of three maize germ oil samples including a provisionally certified reference material. Important performance criteria for the recovery (70–120 %) and precision (RSDr <25 %) as set by the Commission Regulation EC 401/2006 were fulfilled: The mean recovery was 78 % and RSDr did not exceed 8 %. The results of the SPE-HPLC online method were further compared to results obtained by liquid–liquid extraction with stable isotope dilution analysis LC-MS/MS and found to be in good agreement. The developed SPE-HPLC online system with fluorescence detection allows a reliable, accurate, and sensitive quantification (limit of quantification, 30 μg/kg) of ZEN in edible oils while significantly reducing the workload. To our knowledge, this is the first report on an automated SPE-HPLC method based on a covalent SPE approach.
KeywordsDynamic covalent hydrazine chemistry (DCHC) Maize germ oil Food Mycotoxin
The authors would like to thank the ZIM program (Zentrales Innovationsprogramm Mittelstand) of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy for funding (no. KF2201035SB1).
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