Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 407, Issue 12, pp 3285–3301 | Cite as

Size and shape characterization of hydrated and desiccated exosomes

  • Vasiliy S. Chernyshev
  • Rakesh Rachamadugu
  • Yen Hsun Tseng
  • David M. Belnap
  • Yunlu Jia
  • Kyle J. Branch
  • Anthony E. Butterfield
  • Leonard F. PeaseIII
  • Philip S. Bernard
  • Mikhail SkliarEmail author
Paper in Forefront


Exosomes are stable nanovesicles secreted by cells into the circulation. Their reported sizes differ substantially, which likely reflects the difference in the isolation techniques used, the cells that secreted them, and the methods used in their characterization. We analyzed the influence of the last factor on the measured sizes and shapes of hydrated and desiccated exosomes isolated from the serum of a pancreatic cancer patient and a healthy control. We found that hydrated exosomes are close-to-spherical nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic radius that is substantially larger than the geometric size. For desiccated exosomes, we found that the desiccated shape and sizing are influenced by the manner in which drying occurred. Isotropic desiccation in aerosol preserves the near-spherical shape of the exosomes, whereas drying on a surface likely distorts their shapes and influences the sizing results obtained by techniques that require surface fixation prior to analysis.


Hydrated and desiccated exosomes Size and shape characterization 



The authors are indebted to Brian F. Woodfield of Brigham Young University (Department of Chemistry) for providing access to the NTA instrument. The authors acknowledge financial support from the National Science Foundation (award number IGERT-0903715) and the University of Utah (Department of Chemical Engineering Seed Grant and the Graduate Research Fellowship award).

Author contributions

M.S. and P.S.B. conceived the study, R.R. isolated exosomes, V.S.C. and R.R. performed NTA measurements, DLS measurements were performed by V.S.C. and M.S, D.M.B performed cryo-TEM imaging, SEM imaging was performed by Y.J. and V.S.C., electrospray DMA measurements were performed by Y.H.T., V.S.C., L.F.P., and M.S., V.S.C. and M.S. analyzed the experimental results; A.E.B. wrote the MATLAB code to analyze the imaged exosomes, M.S. performed statistical analysis, and V.S.C. and K.J.B. performed manual sizing of the imaged exosomes. The manuscript was written by V.S.C. and M.S., and was edited by all authors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests.

Supplementary material

216_2015_8535_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (552 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 551 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasiliy S. Chernyshev
    • 1
  • Rakesh Rachamadugu
    • 2
  • Yen Hsun Tseng
    • 1
  • David M. Belnap
    • 3
  • Yunlu Jia
    • 1
  • Kyle J. Branch
    • 1
  • Anthony E. Butterfield
    • 1
  • Leonard F. PeaseIII
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  • Philip S. Bernard
    • 2
    • 6
  • Mikhail Skliar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Huntsman Cancer InstituteUniversity of Utah, University Medical CenterSalt Lake CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and Structural BiologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  4. 4.Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  5. 5.Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical ChemistryUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  6. 6.Department of PathologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

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