Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 407, Issue 6, pp 1753–1762 | Cite as

Determination of triazine herbicides in fresh vegetables by dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction high performance liquid chromatography

  • Lijie Wu
  • Mingzhu Hu
  • Zhanchao Li
  • Ying Song
  • Cui Yu
  • Yupu Zhang
  • Hanqi Zhang
  • Aimin Yu
  • Qiang Ma
  • Ziming WangEmail author
Research Paper


A novel extraction method, dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction, was developed for the determination of triazine herbicides, including desmetryn, terbumeton, propazine, terbuthylazine, dimethametryn, and dipropetryn in fresh vegetable samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the developed method, 120 μL of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4MIM][BF4]) was added to 10 mL of aqueous solution containing 0.3 g of NaCl to obtained the extraction solvent. Six triazines could be extracted completely within 4 min by the present method. Then, [NH4][PF6] was added into the extract to form a water-insoluble ionic liquid [C4MIM][PF6] via a simple metathesis reaction, and the analytes were enriched into the ionic liquid phase. After centrifugation and dilution with acetonitrile, the resulting solution was analyzed directly by HPLC. The effects of some experimental parameters, including type and volume of ionic liquid, volume of extraction solvent, amount of ion-pairing agent [NH4][PF6], salt concentration, microwave power, and flow rate of extraction solvent on the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linearity for determining the analytes was in the range of 2.50–250.00 μg kg−1, with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9989 to 0.9999. When the present method was applied to the analysis of vegetable samples, satisfactory recoveries were obtained in the range of 76.8 %–106.9 %, and relative standard deviations were lower than 9.8 %.

Graphical Abstract

Extraction procedure of triazines from vegetable sample


Dynamic microwave-assisted extraction Homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction In-situ metathesis reaction High-performance liquid chromatography Triazine herbicides 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 20905030) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (no. 20090461039).

Supplementary material

216_2014_8393_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (515 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 514 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lijie Wu
    • 1
  • Mingzhu Hu
    • 1
  • Zhanchao Li
    • 1
  • Ying Song
    • 1
  • Cui Yu
    • 2
  • Yupu Zhang
    • 3
  • Hanqi Zhang
    • 1
  • Aimin Yu
    • 1
  • Qiang Ma
    • 4
  • Ziming Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of ChemistryJilin UniversityChangchunChina
  2. 2.School of Chemical and Materials EngineeringYanching Institute of TechnologyLangfangChina
  3. 3.Jilin Province Tobacco Products Quality Supervision and Inspection StationChangchunChina
  4. 4.Chinese Academy of Inspection and QuarantineBeijingChina

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