Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 406, Issue 24, pp 5967–5976 | Cite as

A fluorogenic heterogeneous immunoassay for cardiac muscle troponin cTnI on a digital microfluidic device

  • Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou
  • Adrian Jacobs
  • Hywel Morgan
Research Paper

Abstract

We describe a fluorogenic two-site noncompetitive heterogeneous immunoassay with magnetic beads on a low-voltage digital microfluidic platform using closed electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD). All the steps of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed on the device using 9H-(1, 3-dichloro-9, 9-dimethylacridin-2-one-7-yl) phosphate as the fluorogenic substrate for the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. The performance of the system was demonstrated with cardiac marker Troponin I (cTnI) as a model analyte in phosphate-buffered saline samples. cTnI was detected within the diagnostically relevant range with a limit of detection of 2.0 ng/mL (CV = 6.47 %). Washing of magnetic beads was achieved by movement through a narrow region of buffer bridging one drop to another with minimal fluid transfer. More than 90 % of the unbound reagents were removed after five washes. Further experiments testing human blood serum on the same platform demonstrated a sample-to-answer time at ∼18.5 min detecting 6.79 ng/mL cTnI.

Keywords

Bioassays Immunoassays/ELISA Digital microfluidics Electrowetting 

Abbreviations

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

cTnI

Cardiac muscle troponin I

DMF

Digital microfluidics

EWOD

Electrowetting-on-dielectric

GAENE

Glycolic acid ethoxylate 4-nonylphenyl ether

IgE

Immunoglobulin E

IgG

Immunoglobulin G

LOD

Limit of detection

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work would not have been possible without the assistance from Campbell Brown, Ben Hadwen and Jason Hector from Sharp Labs Europe. The authors would like to thank Prof. Peter Roach and Martyn Hiscox for use of their fluorescence plate reader. Mike Reeve kindly advised on DDAO-P and Cathy Rushworth assisted with the serum experiments. Funding from Sharp Labs Europe is gratefully acknowledged. This work was partly undertaken as an independent research by the National Institute for Health Research (Invention for Innovation (i4i), Rapid detection of infectious agents at point of triage (PoT), II-ES-0511-21002). The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the National Institute for Health Research or the Department of Health.

Supplementary material

216_2014_7997_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (68 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 62 kb)
ESM 2

(WMV 1531 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou
    • 1
  • Adrian Jacobs
    • 2
  • Hywel Morgan
    • 1
  1. 1.Electronics and Computer Science and Institute for Life SciencesUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  2. 2.Sharp Labs of EuropeOxfordUK

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