Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 406, Issue 23, pp 5669–5676 | Cite as

Determination of neurotransmitters and their metabolites using one- and two-dimensional liquid chromatography with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection

  • Brendan J. Holland
  • Xavier A. ConlanEmail author
  • Paul G. Stevenson
  • Susannah Tye
  • Ashlie Reker
  • Neil W. Barnett
  • Jacqui L. Adcock
  • Paul S. FrancisEmail author
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Analytical Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence


High-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection based on the reaction with acidic potassium permanganate and formaldehyde was explored for the determination of neurotransmitters and their metabolites. The neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine were quantified in the left and right hemispheres of rat hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and the metabolites vanillylmandelic acid, 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid and homovanillic acid were identified in human urine. Under optimised chemiluminescence reagent conditions, the limits of detection for these analytes ranged from 2.5 × 10−8 to 2.5 × 10−7 M. For the determination of neurotransmitter metabolites in urine, a two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography (2D-HPLC) separation operated in heart-cutting mode was developed to overcome the peak capacity limitations of the one-dimensional separation. This approach provided the greater separation power of 2D-HPLC with analysis times comparable to conventional one-dimensional separations.


2D-HPLC separation and permanganate chemiluminescence detection of neurotransmitter metabolites


Chemiluminescence Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter metabolites Brain Urine Two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brendan J. Holland
    • 1
  • Xavier A. Conlan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paul G. Stevenson
    • 1
  • Susannah Tye
    • 2
  • Ashlie Reker
    • 2
  • Neil W. Barnett
    • 1
  • Jacqui L. Adcock
    • 1
  • Paul S. Francis
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental SciencesDeakin UniversityWaurn PondsAustralia
  2. 2.School of PsychologyDeakin UniversityBurwoodAustralia

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