Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 406, Issue 3, pp 687–694 | Cite as

Simulation of oxidative stress of guanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine by electrochemically assisted injection–capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry

  • Rebekka Scholz
  • Peter Palatzky
  • Frank-Michael Matysik
Research Paper

Abstract

Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in DNA and RNA damage within biological cells. As a consequence, mutations of DNA can occur, leading to disorders like cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. The oxidative attack of guanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine is simulated by electrochemistry coupled to capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry. The electrochemical conversion of the compound of interest is implemented in the injection protocol termed electrochemically assisted injection (EAI). In this way, oxidation products of guanosine can be generated electrochemically, separated by capillary electrophoresis, and detected by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (EAI–CE–MS). A fully automated laboratory-made EAI cell with an integrated buffer reservoir and a compartment holding screen-printed electrodes is used for the injection. In this study, parameters like pH of the sample solution and the redox potential applied during the injection were investigated in terms of corresponding formation of well-known markers of DNA damage. The important product species, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine, was investigated in a separate study to distinguish between primary and secondary oxidation products. A comparison of product species formed under alkaline, neutral, and acidic conditions is presented. To compare real biological systems with an analytical approach for simulation of oxidative stress, it is desirable to have a well-defined control over the redox potential and to use solutions, which are close to physiological conditions. In contrast to typical HPLC–MS protocols, the hyphenation of EAI, CE, and MS enables the generation and separation of species involved without the use of organic solvents. Thus, information of the electrochemical behavior of the nucleoside guanosine as well as the primary oxidation product 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine can be characterized under conditions close to the physiological situation. In addition, the migration behavior found in CE separations of product species can be used to identify compounds if several possible species have the same mass-to-charge values determined by MS detection.

Keywords

Nucleoside oxidation Electrochemistry Capillary electrophoresis Mass spectrometry Electrochemically assisted injection Guanosine Oxidative stress 

Abbreviations

5-OH-8-oxo-Gs

5-Hydroxy-8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine

8-Oxo-Gs

8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine

BDD

Boron-doped diamond

Caf

Caffeine

CE

Capillary electrophoresis

dGh

Dehydroguanidinohydantoin

dGMP

2′-Deoxyguanosine-5′-monophosphate

EAI

Electrochemically assisted injection

EC–MS

Electrochemistry–mass spectrometry

EC–μLC–MS

Electrochemistry–μ-liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

EOF

Electroosmotic flow

ESI-Tof-MS

Electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

Gh

Guanidinohydantoin

Gs

Guanosine

Ip

Diiminopyrimidinone

Iz

Imidazolone

LC–MS

Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

MS

Mass spectrometry

NH4OAc

Ammonium acetate

Ox

Oxadiazine

Q-Tof-MS

Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

Sp

Spiroiminodihydantoin

SPCE

Screen-printed carbon electrode

tm

Migration time

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rebekka Scholz
    • 1
  • Peter Palatzky
    • 1
  • Frank-Michael Matysik
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and BiosensorsUniversity of RegensburgRegensburgGermany

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