Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 406, Issue 14, pp 3263–3277 | Cite as

Cellphone-based devices for bioanalytical sciences

  • Sandeep Kumar Vashist
  • Onur Mudanyali
  • E. Marion Schneider
  • Roland Zengerle
  • Aydogan Ozcan
Review
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Multiplex Platforms in Diagnostics and Bioanalytics

Abstract

During the last decade, there has been a rapidly growing trend toward the use of cellphone-based devices (CBDs) in bioanalytical sciences. For example, they have been used for digital microscopy, cytometry, read-out of immunoassays and lateral flow tests, electrochemical and surface plasmon resonance based bio-sensing, colorimetric detection and healthcare monitoring, among others. Cellphone can be considered as one of the most prospective devices for the development of next-generation point-of-care (POC) diagnostics platforms, enabling mobile healthcare delivery and personalized medicine. With more than 6.5 billion cellphone subscribers worldwide and approximately 1.6 billion new devices being sold each year, cellphone technology is also creating new business and research opportunities. Many cellphone-based devices, such as those targeted for diabetic management, weight management, monitoring of blood pressure and pulse rate, have already become commercially-available in recent years. In addition to such monitoring platforms, several other CBDs are also being introduced, targeting e.g., microscopic imaging and sensing applications for medical diagnostics using novel computational algorithms and components already embedded on cellphones. This report aims to review these recent developments in CBDs for bioanalytical sciences along with some of the challenges involved and the future opportunities.

Figure

The universal Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) reader developed at UCLA. It can read various lateral flow assays for point-of-care and telemedicine applications

Keywords

Cellphone Bioanalytical sciences Diagnostics Point-of-care Digital health 

Abbreviations

BP

Blood pressure

CBD

Cellphone-based device

CE

Conformité Européenne

ECG

Electrocardiogram

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ESH

European Society of Hypertension

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FOV

Field-of-view

Hb

Hemoglobin

hsCRP

High-sensitivity C-reactive protein

IF

Interstitial fluid

LED

Light-emitting diode

LFA

Lateral flow assay

LFI

Lateral flow immunoassay

mHealthcare

Mobile Healthcare

MIR

Mobile image ratiometry

MTP

Microtiter plate

NFC

Near-field communication

PCADM-1

Prostate cancer antigen diagnostic marker 1

PDMS

Polydimethylsiloxane

PfHRP

Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2

POC

Point-of-care

QD

Quantum dot

RBC

Red blood cells

RDT

Rapid diagnostic test

RFID

Radio frequency identification device

RR

Radar responsive

SNR

Signal-to-noise ratio

SPR

Surface plasmon resonance

TSH

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

β2M

β2 microglobulin

References

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    McGeough CM, O’Driscoll S (2013) Camera phone-based quantitative analysis of C-reactive protein ELISA. IEEE Trans Biomed Circ Syst. doi:10.1109/TBCAS.2012.2234122 Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lu Y, Shi S, Qin J, Lin B (2009) Low cost, portable detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled microfluidic immunoassay with camera cell phone. Electrophoresis 30:579–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coskun AF, Wong J, Khodadadi D, Nagi R, Tey A, Ozcan A (2013) A personalized food allergen testing platform on a cellphone. Lab Chip 13:636–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhu H, Sikora U, Ozcan A (2012) Quantum dot enabled detection of Escherichia coli using a cell-phone. Analyst 137:2541–2544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    www.gentag.com. Accessed on 4 July, 2013
  8. 8.
    You DJ, Park TS, Yoon J-Y (2013) Cell-phone-based measurement of TSH using Mie scatter optimized lateral flow assays. Biosens Bioelectron 40:180–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mudanyali O, Dimitrov S, Sikora U, Padmanabhan S, Navruz I, Ozcan A (2012) Integrated rapid-diagnostic-test reader platform on a cellphone. Lab Chip 12:2678–2686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    www.mobileassay.com. Accessed on 4 July, 2013
  11. 11.
    Cooper DC, Callahan B, Callahan P, Burnett L (2012) Mobile image ratiometry: a new method for instantaneous analysis of rapid test strips. Nat Preced. doi:10.1038/npre.2012.6827.1 Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cooper DC (2012) Mobile image ratiometry for the detection of Botrytis cinerea (Gray Mold). Nat Preced. doi:10.1038/npre.2012.6989.1 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    http://www.cdc.gov/features/dsfoodnet/. Accessed on 4 July, 2013
  14. 14.
    Scharff RL (2012) Economic burden from health losses due to foodborne illness in the United States. J Food Prot 75:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lillehoj PB, Huang M-C, Truong N, Ho C-M (2013) Rapid electrochemical detection on a mobile phone. Lab Chip. doi:10.1039/c3lc50306b Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    www.ihealth99.com. Accessed on 4 July, 2013
  17. 17.
    www.progical.com. Accessed on 4 July, 2013
  18. 18.
    Oberding JW, Geiger GE, White KD, Ward RN (2007) Blood glucose meter/modem interface arrangement. US Patent Application, Publication No. US 7,181,350 B2Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vashist SK, Zheng D, Al-Rubeaan K, Luong JHT, Sheu F-W (2011) Technology behind commercial devices for blood glucose monitoring in diabetes management: a review. Anal Chim Acta 703:124–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vashist SK (2012) Non-invasive glucose monitoring technology in diabetes management: a review. Anal Chim Acta 750:16–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Preechaburana P, Gonzalez MC, Suska A, Filippini D (2012) Surface plasmon resonance chemical sensing on cell phones. Angew Chem 124:11753–11756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Breslauer DN, Maamari RN, Switz NA, Lam WA, Fletcher DA (2009) Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications. PLoS ONE 4:e6320. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006320 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Smith ZJ, Chu K, Espenson AR, Gryshuk A, Molinaro M, Dwyre DM, Lane S, Matthews D, Wachsmann-Hogiu S (2011) Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications. PLoS ONE 6:e17150. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017150 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    www.holomic.com. Accessed 4 July 2013
  25. 25.
    Mudanyali O, Tseng D, Oh C, Isikman SO, Sencan I, Bishara W, Oztoprak C, Seo S, Khademhosseini B, Ozcan A (2010) Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications. Lab Chip 10:1417–1428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tseng D, Mudanyali O, Oztoprak C, Isikman SO, Sencan I, Yaglidere O, Ozcan A (2010) Lensfree microscopy on a cellphone. Lab Chip 10:1787–1792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bishara W, Sikora U, Mudanyali O, Su T-W, Yaglidere O, Luckhart S, Ozcan A (2011) Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array. Lab Chip 11:1276–1279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhu H, Yaglidere O, Su T-S, Tseng D, Ozcan A (2011) Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone. Lab Chip 11:315–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhu H, Mavandadi S, Coskun AF, Yaglidere O, Ozcan A (2011) Optofluidic fluorescent imaging cytometry on a cell phone. Anal Chem 83:6641–6647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhu H, Sencan I, Wong J, Dimitrov S, Tseng D, Nagashima K, Ozcan A (2013) Cost-effective and rapid blood analysis on a cell-phone. Lab Chip 13:1282–1288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shen L, Hagen JA, Papautsky I (2012) Point-of-care colorimetric detection with a smartphone. Lab Chip 12:4240–4243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    www.alivecor.com. Accessed on 4 July, 2013
  33. 33.
    www.cellscope.com. Accessed on 4 July, 2013
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
    Wong C (2012) Cell-phone compatible wireless stethoscope. US Patent Application, Publication No. US 2012/0190303 A1Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kadlec M, You D, Wong PK (2011) A cell phone-based microphotometric system for rapid antimicrobial resistance profiling at the point-of-care. Proceedings of μTAS:1167-1169Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    www.glucomo.com. Accessed on 4 July, 2013
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
    Kenyon JI, Poropatich R, Holtel MR (2011) Cell phones in telehealth and otolaryngology. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 44:1351–1358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Martinez AW, Phillips ST, Carrilho E, Thomas SW III, Sindi H, Whitesides GM (2008) Simple telemedicine for developing regions: camera phones and paper-based microfluidic devices for real-time, off-site diagnosis. Anal Chem 80:3699–3707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bhatti N, Baker H, Marguier J, Berclaz J, Susstrunk S (2010) Cell Phones as Imaging Sensors. Proc. SPIE Mobile Multimedia/Image Processing, Security, and Applications 2010, SPIE Vol. 7708, Paper No. 7708-01, 2010Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bellina L, Missoni E (2009) Mobile cell-phones (M-phones) in telemicroscopy: increasing connectivity of isolated laboratories. Diagn Pathol 4:19. doi:10.1186/1746-1596-4-19 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Montes JM, Medina E, Gomez-Beneyto M, Maurino J (2012) A short message service (SMS)-based strategy for enhancing adherence to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 200:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lester RT et al (2010) Effects of a mobile phone short message service on antiretroviral treatment adherence in Kenya (WelTel Kenya1): a randomized trial. Lancet 376:1838–1845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Thomas MA, Narayan PR, Christian C (2012) Mitigating gaps in reproductive health reporting in outlier communities of Kerala, India—a mobile phone-based health information system. Health Policy Technol 1:69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lamel SA, Haldeman KM, Ely H, Kovarik CL, Pak H, Armstrong AW (2012) Application of mobile teledermatology for skin cancer screening. J Am Acad Dermatol 67:576–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Benhamou P-Y, Melki V, Boizel R, Perreal F, Quesada J-L, Bessieres-Lacombe S, Bosson J-L, Halimi S, Hanaire H (2007) 1 year efficacy and safety of Web-based follow-up using cellular phone in type 1 diabetic patients under insulin pump therapy: the PumpNet study. Diabetes Metab 33:220–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
  51. 51.
  52. 52.
    Shapira N (2013) Women’s higher health risks in the obesogenic environment: a gender nutrition approach to metabolic dimorphism with predictive, preventive, and personalised medicine. EPMA J 4:1. doi:10.1186/1878-5085-4-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shortell SM (2013) Bridging the divide between health and health care. JAMA 309:1121–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shirasu M, Touhara K (2011) The scent of disease: volatile organic compounds of the human body related to disease and disorder. J Biochem 150:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandeep Kumar Vashist
    • 1
  • Onur Mudanyali
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • E. Marion Schneider
    • 5
  • Roland Zengerle
    • 1
    • 6
    • 7
  • Aydogan Ozcan
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.HSG-IMIT - Institut für Mikro- und InformationstechnikFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.Electrical Engineering DepartmentUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Bioengineering DepartmentUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI)University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  5. 5.Sektion Experimentelle AnaesthesiologieUniversity Hospital UlmUlmGermany
  6. 6.Laboratory for MEMS Applications, Department of Microsystems Engineering - IMTEKUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  7. 7.BIOSS - Centre for Biological Signalling StudiesUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany

Personalised recommendations