Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 24, pp 7687–7696 | Cite as

A new restricted access molecularly imprinted polymer capped with albumin for direct extraction of drugs from biological matrices: the case of chlorpromazine in human plasma

  • Gabriel de Oliveira Isac Moraes
  • Larissa Meirelles Rodrigues da Silva
  • Álvaro José dos Santos-Neto
  • Fábio Herbst Florenzano
  • Eduardo Costa FigueiredoEmail author
Research Paper


A new restricted access molecularly imprinted polymer coated with bovine serum albumin (RAMIP-BSA) was developed, characterized, and used for direct analysis of chlorpromazine in human plasma samples. The RAMIP-BSA was synthesized using chlorpromazine, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as template, functional monomer, and cross-linker, respectively. Glycerol dimethacrylate and hydroxy methyl methacrylate were used to promote a hydrophilic surface (high density of hydroxyl groups). Afterward, the polymer was coated with BSA using glutaraldehyde as cross-linker, resulting in a protein chemical shield around it. The material was able to eliminate ca. 99 % of protein when a 44-mg mL−1 BSA aqueous solution was passed through it. The RAMIP-BSA was packed in a column and used for direct analysis of chlorpromazine in human plasma samples in an online column switching high-performance liquid chromatography system. The analytical calibration curve was prepared in a pool of human plasma samples with chlorpromazine concentrations ranging from 30 to 350 μg L−1. The correlation coefficient obtained was 0.995 and the limit of quantification was 30 μg L−1. Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy presented variation coefficients and relative errors lower than 15 % and within −15 and 15 %, respectively. The sample throughput was 3 h−1 (sample preparation and chromatographic analysis steps) and the same RAMIP-BSA column was efficiently used for about 90 cycles.


Molecularly imprinted polymer Restricted access material BSA layer RAMIP-BSA Human plasma Chlorpromazine 



We thank the “Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais” (Belo Horizonte, Brazil; projects CDS-APQ-01612-10 and CDS-APQ-01323-09), “Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico” (Brasília, Brazil), and “Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo” (São Paulo, Brazil; process 2007/50970-5).

Supplementary material

216_2013_7275_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (159 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 159 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriel de Oliveira Isac Moraes
    • 1
  • Larissa Meirelles Rodrigues da Silva
    • 1
  • Álvaro José dos Santos-Neto
    • 2
  • Fábio Herbst Florenzano
    • 3
  • Eduardo Costa Figueiredo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Toxicant and Drug Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesFederal University of Alfenas—Unifal-MGAlfenasBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratory of Chromatography, Institute of Chemistry of São CarlosUniversity of São PauloSão CarlosBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto de Ciências ExatasFederal University of Alfenas—Unifal-MGAlfenasBrazil

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