Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 25, pp 7957–7992 | Cite as

Post-column labeling techniques in amino acid analysis by liquid chromatography

  • Pantelis G. RigasEmail author
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Amino Acid Analysis


Amino acid analysis (AAA) has always presented an analytical challenge in terms of sample preparation, separation, and detection. Because of the vast number of amino acids, various separation methods have been applied taking into consideration the large differences in their chemical structures, which span from nonpolar to highly polar side chains. Numerous separation methods have been developed in the past 60 years, and impressive achievements have been made in the fields of separation, derivatization, and detection of amino acids (AAs). Among the separation methods, liquid chromatography (LC) prevailed in the AAA field using either pre-column or post-column labeling techniques in order to improve either separation of AAs or selectivity and sensitivity of AAA. Of the two approaches, the post-column technique is a more rugged and reproducible method and provides excellent AAs separation relatively free from interferences. This review considers current separations combined with post-column labeling techniques for AAA, comparison with the pre-column methods, and the strategies used to develop effective post-column methodology. The focus of the article is on LC methods coupled with post-column labeling techniques and studying the reactions to achieve optimum post-column derivatization (PCD) conditions in order to increase sensitivity and selectivity using various types of detectors (UV–Vis, fluorescence, electrochemical etc.) and illustrating the versatility of the PCD methods for practical analysis.


Reaction‐detection scheme for the fluorescent derivative of proline with o‐pthalaldehyde reagent


Amino acid analysis Derivatization Post-column labeling Liquid chromatography 


  1. 1.
    Spackman DH, Stein WH, Moore S (1958) Anal Chem 30:1190–1206Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moore S, Stein WH (1948) J Biol Chem 176:367–388Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moore S, Stein WH (1951) J Biol Chem 192:663–681Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moore S, Stein WH (1954) J Biol Chem 211:893–906Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stein WH, Moore S (1948) J Biol Chem 176:337–365Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moore S, Stein WH (1954) J Biol Chem 211:907–913Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Piez KA, Morris L (1960) Anal Biochem 1:187–201Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Moore S, Stein WH (1963) Methods Enzymol 6:819–831Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moore S (1968) J Biol Chem 243:6281–6283Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rosen H, Berard CW, Levenson SM (1962) Anal Biochem 4:213–221Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schverdfeger E (1962) J Chromatogr 7:418–419Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    James LB (1971) J Chromatogr 59:178–180Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    James LB (1971) J Chromatogr 152:298–300Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    James LB (1984) J Chromatogr 284:97–103Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    West ES, Rinehart R (1942) J Biol Chem 146:105–108Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Niece RL (1975) J Chromatogr 103:25–32Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yokoyama S, Hiramatsu JI (2003) J Biosci Bioeng 95:204–205Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lamothe PJ, McCormick PG (1973) Anal Chem 45:1906–1911Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pickering VM (1989) LCGC 7:484–490Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Csapo J, Cs A, Loki K, Zs C-K (2008) Acta Univ Sapientiae Alimentaria 1:5–29Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Csapo J, Albert C, Loki K, Csapo-Kiss Z (2005) Acta Agraria Kaposváriensis 9:33–51Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grunau AJ, Swiader MJ (1992) J Chromatogr 594:165–171Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Adriaens P, Meesschaert B, Wuyts W, Vanderhaeghe H, Eyssen H (1977) J Chromatogr 40:103–108Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yokoyama Y, Wakabayashi N, Furugaki Y, Sato H (2004) Anal Sci 20:1189–1192Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Welch EL, LaCourse RW, Mead AD Jr, Johnson CD, Hu T (1989) Anal Chem 61:555–559Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Iwase H, Ozawa S, Ikuta M, Ono I (1995) J Chromatogr B 663:15–24Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Le Boucher J, Charret C, Coudray-Lucas C, Giboudeau J, Cynober L (1997) Clin Chem 43:1421–1428Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Furst P, Pollack L, Graser AT, Godel H, Stehle P (1990) J Chromatogr 499:557–569Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fekkes D, van Dalen A, Edelman M, Voskuilen A (1995) J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl 669:177–186Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Deyl Z, Hyanek J, Horakova M (1986) J Chromatogr 379:177–250Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chow J, Orenberg JB, Nugent KD (1987) J Chromatogr 386:243–249Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ng TL, Wong YD, Francis T, Anderson GH (1991) J Nutr Biochem 2:671–679Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Qureshia AG, Qureshia RA (1989) J Chromatogr 491:281–289Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rigas PG, Arvanitis JS, Pietrzyk DJ (1987) J Liq Chromatogr 10:2891–2910Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Walker TA, Pietrzyk DJ (1987) J Liq Chromatogr 10:161–174Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Aruda WO, Aruda KO (2009) LCGC N Am 27:916–929Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Aruda WO, Aruda KO (2009) LCGC N Am 27:626–636Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dou L, Krull IS (1990) Anal Chem 62:2599–2606Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Galletti GC, Bocchini P (1996) J Chromatogr A 729:393–398Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kiba N, Oyama Y, Kato A, Furusawa M (1996) J Chromatogr A 724:354–357Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kiba N, Shimura G, Hayashi H, Tachibana M, Tani K, Koizumi H, Hibino Y (2000) Anal Sci 16:981–984Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dou L, Krull IS (1990) J Pharm Biomed Anal 8:493–498Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Simons SS Jr, Johnson DF (1977) Anal Biochem 82:250–254Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fiorino A, Frigo G, Cucchetti E (1989) J Chromatogr 476:83–92Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Eid YZ, Ohtsuka A, Hayashi K (2001) J Poult Sci 38:354–357Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nakamura H, Tamura Z (1981) Anal Chem 53:2190–2193Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Costin JW, Francis PS, Lewis SW (2003) Anal Chim Acta 480:67–77Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    MacDonald A, Nieman TA (1985) Anal Chem 57:936–940Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kiba N, Kaneko M (1984) J Chromatogr 303:396–403Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jansen H, Brinkman UAT, Frei RW (1988) J Chromatogr 440:217–223Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Toyo’oka T (ed) (1999) Modern derivatization methods for separation sciences. John Wiley and sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Coppex L (2000) Diploma thesis: derivatives for HPLC analysis, University of Genf, Available from:
  53. 53.
    Clarke PA, Jandik P, Rocklin DR, Liu Y, Avdalovic N (1999) Anal Chem 71:2774–2781Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jandik P, Cheng J, Jensen D, Manz S, Avdalovic N (2001) J Chromatogr 758:189–196Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hanko PV, Heckenberg A, Rohrer JS (2004) J Biomol Tech 15:317–324Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Petritis K, Chaimbault P, Elfakir C, Dreux M (1999) J Chromatogr A 833:147–155Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yokoyama Y, Ozaki O, Sato H (1996) J Chromatogr A 739:333–342Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chaimbault P, Petritis K, Elfakir C, Dreux M (2000) J Chromatogr A 870:245–254Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Petritis K, Valleix A, Elfakir C, Dreux M (2001) J Chromatogr A 913:331–340Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Petritis K, Chaimbault P, Elfakir C, Dreux M (2000) J Chromatogr A 896:253–263Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Armstrong M, Jonscher K, Reisdorph NA (2007) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 21:2717–2726Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Piraud M, Vianey-Saban C, Petritis K, Elfakir C, Steghens J-P, Bouchu D (2005) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 19:1587–1602Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kiba N, Hori S, Furusawa M (1989) J Chromatogr 463:177–182Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ci Y-X, Tie J-K, Wang Q-W, Chang W-B (1992) Anal Chim Acta 269:109–114Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kiba N, Oyama Y, Furusawa M (1993) Talanta 40:657–660Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Vander Heyden Y, Mangelings D, Van Brempt J, Spapen H (2004) Acta Chromatographica 14:149–164Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Johansson M, Westerland D (1987) J Chromatogr A 385:343–356Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bolden ME, Danielson ND (1998) J Chromatogr A 828:421–430Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kodamatani H, Saito K, Niina N, Yamazaki S, Muramatso A, Sakurada I (2004) Anal Sci 20:1065–1068Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Li Q, Shang F, Lu C, Zheng Z, Linc J-M (2011) J Chromatogr A 1218:9064–9070Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Langrock T, Czihal P, Hoffmann R (2006) Amino Acids 30:291–297Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gokmen V, Serpen A, Mogol BA (2012) Anal Bioanal Chem 403:2915–2922Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kaspar H, Dettmer K, Gronwald W, Oefner JP (2009) Anal Bioanal Chem 393:445–452Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Guo S, Duan J, Qian D, Tang Y, Qian Y, Wu D, Su S, Shang E (2013) J Agric Food Chem 61:2709–2719Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pickering Labs, amino acid analysis with temperature and eluant gradients, Available from:
  76. 76.
    Engelhardt H, Neue UD (1982) Chromatographia 15:403–408Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Liu H, Duda CT, Haung T, Aruda WD, Kissinger PT (1998) J Chromatogr A 818:69–75Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Liu H, Huang Τ, Kissinger CB, Kissinger PT (1998) J Chromatogr B 713:289–295Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Liu H, Krull IS, Kaufman A, Aruda WD, Kissinger PT (1997) Current Sep 16:37–42Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kaufman AD, Kissinger PT, Jones JE (1997) Anal Chim Acta 356:177–186Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Marco-Varga G, Gorton L (1990) Anal Chim Acta 234:13–29Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Friedman M, Williams LD (1974) Bioorganic Chem 3:267–280Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Friedman M (2004) J Agric Food Chem 52:385–406Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Takahashi S (1978) J Biochem 83:57–60Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Standara S, Drdák M, Veselá M (1999) Mol Nutr Food Res 43:410–413Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pickering M (1981) Ninhydrin reagent for use in amines and amino acid analyses U.S. Patent no. 4,274,833Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pickering Labs, Trione® Ninhydrin reagent –Chromatographic Grade™. A prepared reagent for automated post column derivatization of primary and secondary amines, Available from:
  88. 88.
    Hori T, Kihara S (1988) Fresenius Z Anal Chem 330:627–630Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Friedman M, Noma AT, Wagner JE (1979) Anal Biochem 98:293–304Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bowie L, Crawhall JC, Gochman N, Johnson K, Schneider JA (1976) Clin Chim Acta 68:349–353Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Friedman M, Noma AT (1975) In: Friedman M (ed) Methods and problems in chromatographic analysis of sulfur amino acids. Protein nutritional quality of foods and feeds. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 521–548Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Candito M, Bedoucha P, Mahagne MH, Scavini G, Chatel M (1997) J Chromatogr B 692:213–216Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Peace WR, Gilani SG (2005) J AOAC Int 88:877–887Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wang WH, Rusin O, Xu XY, Kim KK, Escobedo JO, Fakayode SO, Fletcher KA, Lowry M, Schowalter CM, Lawrence CM, Fronczek FR, Warner IM, Strongin RM (2005) J Am Chem Soc 127:15949–15958Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tzanavaras PD, Tsiomlektsis A, Zacharis CK (2010) J Pharm Biomed Anal 53:790–794Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Owen TC (2008) Bioorg Chem 36:156–160Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zacharis CK, Tzanavaras PD, Zotou A (2011) Anal Chim Acta 690:122–128Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Tzanavaras PD (2012) Instrum Sci Technol 40:150–160Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Owusu-Apenten R (2005) Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 45:1–23Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Jenke DR, Brown DS (1987) Anal Chem 59:1509–1512Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Yasuhara T, Nokihara K (1998) Anal Chem 70:3505–3509Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nozal J, Bernala JL, Toribio L, Marinero P, Morala O, Manzanas L, Rodriguez E (1997) J Chromatogr A 778:347–353Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Nishiyama J, Kuninori T (1984) Anal Biochem 138:95–98Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Riener CK, Kada G, Gruber HJ (2002) Anal Bioanal Chem 373:266–276Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Andersson A, Isaksson A, Brattstrom L, Hultberg B (1993) Clin Chem 39:1590–1597Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Saurina J, Hernhdez-Cassou S (1994) J Chromatogr A 676:311–319Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Saurina J, Hernhdez-Cassou S (1996) J Chromatogr A 740:21–30Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Zacharis KC, Tzanavaras FP, Mouroutis NP, Rigas PG (2011) Anal Lett 44:1821–1834Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    López-Grıo S, Torres-Lapasió JR, Baeza-Baeza JJ, Garcıa-Alvarez-Coque MC (2000) Anal Chim Acta 418:153–165Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Harada D, Naito S, Kawauchi Y, Ishikawa K, Koshitani O, Hiraoka I, Otagiri M (2001) Anal Biochem 290:251–259Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Awwad HK, Adelstein SJ (1966) Anal Biochem 16:433–437Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lu C, Zu YB, Yam VWW (2007) Anal Chem 79:666–672Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lu C, Zu YB, Yam VWW (2007) J Chromatogr A 1163:328–332Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lu C, Zu YB (2007) Chem Commun 3871–3873Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Roth M (1971) Anal Chem 43:880–882Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ashworth BR (1987) J AOAC Int 70:248–252Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Benson RJ, Hare EP (1975) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 72:619–622Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Böhlen P, Mellet M (1979) Anal Biochem 94:313–321Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ishida Y, Fujita T, Asai K (1981) J Chromatogr 204:143–148Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Haginaka J, Wakai J (1988) Anal Biochem 171:398–403Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Haginaka J, Wakai J (1987) J Chromatogr A 396:297–305Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hill DW, Walters FH, Wilson TD, Stuart JD (1979) Anal Chem 51:1338–1341Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Jones BN, Paabo S, Stein S (1981) J Liq Chromaogr 4:565–586Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Douša M, Břicháč J, Gibala P, Lehnert P (2011) J Pharm Biomed Anal 54:972–978Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Weigele M, DeBernardo S, Leimgruber W (1973) Biophys Res Commun 50:352–356Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Nakamura H, Himuro A, Tamura Z (1984) Bunseki Kagaku 33:227–234Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Pickering Laboratories, Inc. (2002) Amino acids application manual version 2.0Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Fujiwara M, Ishida Y, Nimura N, Toyama A, Kinoshita T (1987) Anal Biochem 166:72–78Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Ishida Y (1991) In: Hanai T (ed) Liquid chromatography in biomedical analysis. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V, Amsterdam, pp 47–80Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kucera P, Umagat H (1983) J Chromatogr 255:563–579Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hill D, Burnworth L, Skea W, Pfeifer R (1982) J Liq Chromatogr 5:2369–2393Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Umagat H, Kucera P, Wen L-F (1982) J Chromatogr 239:463–474Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Cunico R, Schlabach T (1983) J Chromatogr 266:461–470Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Turnel DC, Cooper JDH (1982) Clin Chem 28:527–531Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Fernstrom MH, Fernstrom JD (1981) Life Sci 29:2119–2130Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    De Montigny P, Stobaugh FJ, Givens SR, Carlson GR, Srinivasachar K, Sternson AL, Higuchi T (1987) Anal Chem 59:1096–1101Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Koning H, Wolf H, Venema K, Korf J (1990) J Chromatogr 553:171–178Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Beale S, Hsieh YZ, Wiesler D, Novotny M (1990) J Chromatogr 499:579–587Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Beale S, Savage J, Wiesler D, Wietstock S, Novotny M (1988) Anal Chem 60:1765–1769Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Liu J, Hsieh YZ, Wiesler D, Novotny M (1991) Anal Chem 63:408–412Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Hayashi K, Maeda Y, Toyomizu M, Tomita Y (1987) J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 33:151–156Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Emery PW, Rennie MJ (1982) Anal Biochem 126:67–73Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Neuberger A (1944) Biochem J 38:309–315Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Pellegrino L, Resmini P (1996) Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 202:66–71Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Nakamura H, Tamura Z (1981) Anal Chem 54:1951–1955Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Parmentier C, Leroy P, Wellman M, Nicolas A (1998) J Chromatogr B 719:37–46Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Leroy P, Nicolas A, Wellman M, Michelet F, Oster T, Siest G (1993) Chromatographia 36:130–134Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Leroy P, Nicolas A, Thioudellet C, Oster T, Wellman M, Siest G (1993) Biomed Chromatogr 7:86–89Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Mukai Y, Togawa T, Suzuki T, Ohata K, Tanabe K (2002) J Chromatogr B 767:263–268Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    McCaman MW, Robins E (1962) J Lab Clin Med 59:885–890Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Samejima K, Dairman W, Udenfriend S (1971) Anal Biochem 42:222–236Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Weigele M, Blount JF, Tengi JP, Czajkowski RC, Leimgruber W (1972) J Am Chem Soc 94:4052–4054Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Samejima K, Dairman W, Stone J, Udenfriend S (1971) Anal Biochem 42:237–247Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Weigele M, DeBernardo SL, Tengi JP, Leimgruber W (1972) J Am Chem Soc 94:5927–5928Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Udenfriend S (1972) J Res Nat Bur Stand Sec A Phys Ch 76A:637–640Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Udenfriend S, Stein S, Bohlen P, Dairman W, Leimgruber W, Wieble M (1972) Science 178:871–872Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Stein S, Bohlen P, Stone J, Dairman W, Udenfriend S (1973) Arch Biochem Biophys 155:202–212Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Felix AM, Terkelsen G (1973) Arch Biochem Biophys 157:177–182Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Huff T, Muller C, Hannappel E (1997) Anal Chim Acta 352:239–248Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Johansson M, Lenngren S (1988) J Chromatogr B 432:65–74Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Shimada K, Mitamura K (1994) J Chromatogr B 659:227–241Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Takahashi H, Yoshida T, Meguro H (1981) Bunseki Kagaku 30:339–341Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Watanabe Y, Imai K (1983) Anal Chem 55:1786–1791Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Yoshida H, Sumida T, Masujima T, Lmai H (1982) J HRC CC 5:509–511Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Rigas P, Nikolaides G, Zampaka V, Spiridonakos N, Tsarhopoulos K, Doukakis M (2013) NBD-Cl as a post column reagent for amino and imino acids after separation by ion exchange chromatography, Pittsburgh Conference, March 17–21, Philadelphia, PA, USAGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Toyo’oka T, Watanabe Y, Imai K (1983) Anal Chim Acta 149:305–312Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ahnoff M, Grundavik I, Arfwidsson A, Fonselius J, Persson B (1981) Anal Chem 53:485–489Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Imai K, Watanabe Y (1981) Anal Chim Acta 130:377–383Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Imai K, Watanabe Y, Toyo'oka T (1982) Chromatographia 16:214–215Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Roth M (1978) Clin Chim Acta 83:273–277Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Maroulis M, Monemvasios I, Vardaka E, Rigas P (2008) J Chromatogr B 876:245–251Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Johnson L, Lagerkvist S, Lindroth P, Ahnoff M, Martinsson K (1982) Anal Chem 54:939–942Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Toyo’oka T, Suzuki T, Saito Y, Uzu S, Imai K (1989) Analyst 114:413–419Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Huang Y, Matsunaga H, Toriba A, Santa T, Fukushima T, Imai K (1999) Anal Biochem 270:257–267Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Imai K, Fukushima T, Yokosu H (1994) Biomed Chromatogr 8:107–113Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Christensen ΗΝ, Collins S (1956) J Biol Chem 220:279–286Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Tsuji A (1982) Bunseki Kagaku 31:333–342Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Maeda M, Tsuji A (1973) Anal Biochem 52:555–562Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Maeda M, Tsuji A, Ganno S, Onishi Y (1973) J Chromatogr 77:434–438Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Yokoyama T, Kinoshita T (1991) J Chromatogr 568:212–218Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Yang M, Tomellini SA (2000) Anal Chim Acta 409:45–53Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Werkhoven-Goewie CE, Niessen WMA, Brinkman UAT, Frei RM (1981) J Chromatogr 203:165–172Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Hanaoka S, Lin J, Yamada M (2000) Anal Chim Acta 409:65–73Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Barbusinski K (2010) Ecol Chem Eng S 16:347–358Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Kehrer JP (2000) Toxicology 149:43–50Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Khan AU, Kasha M (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:12365–12367Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Florence TM (1984) J Inorg Biochem 22:221–230Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Fan S, Qingxiong L (1993) Talanta 40:1557–1561Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Lin J-M, Hobo T (1996) 323:69–74Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Koerner PJ Jr, Nieman TA (1987) Mikrochim Acta [Wien] II:79–90Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Brune SN, Bobbitt DR (1992) Anal Chem 64:166–170Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Brune SN, Bobbitt DR (1991) Talanta 38:419–424Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Uchikura K, Kirisawa M (1991) Anal Sci 7:971–973Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Fedorowski J, LaCourse RW (2010) Anal Chim Acta 657:1–8Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Prodolliet J, Bruelhart M (1993) J AOAC Int 76:275–282Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Guilbault GG, Hieserman J (1968) Anal Biochem 26:1–11Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Guilbault GG, Brignac P Jr, Zimmer M (1968) Anal Chem 40:190–196Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Olsson B (1985) Mikrochim Acta 2:211–221Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Studebaker JF, Slocum SA, Lewis LE (1978) Anal Chem 50:1500–1503Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Studebaker JF (1979) J Chromatogr 185:497–503Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Millot MC, Sebille B (1986) J Chromatogr 354:155–167Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Millot MC, Sebille B (1990) React Polym 13:177–190Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Idowu OR, Adewuyi GO (1993) J Liq Chromatogr 16:2501–2518Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Kubíčková A, Kubíček V, Coufal P (2011) J Sep Sci 34:3131–3135Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Dietzen DJ, Weindel AL, Carayannopoulus MO, Landt M, Normansell ET, Reimschisel TE, Smith CH (2008) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 22:3481–3488Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Kaspar H, Dettmer K, Chan Q, Daniels S, Nimkar S, Daviglus ML, Stamler J, Elliott P, Oefner PJ (2009) J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 877:1838–1846Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Song Y, Funatsu T, Tsunoda M (2012) Amino Acids 42:1897–1902Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Huub Waterval WA, Scheijen JLJM, Ortmans-Ploemen MMJC, der Poel CD H-v, Bierau J (2009) Clin Chim Acta 407:36–42Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Petritis K, Brussaux S, Guenu S, Elfakir C, Dreux M (2002) J Chromatogr A 957:173–185Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Apffel A, Fischer S, Goldberg G, Goodley PC, Kuhlmann FE (1995) J Chromatogr A 712:177–190Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Chaimbault P, Petritis K, Elfakir C, Dreux M (1999) J Chromatogr A 855:191–202Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Hiraoka K, Murata K, Kudaka I (1995) J Mass Spectrom Soc Jpn 43:127–138Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Pickering MV (1989) LCGC 11:994–997Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Frei RW (1982) Chromatographia 15:161–166Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Werkhoven-Goewie CE, Brinkman UAT, Frei RW (1980) Anal Chim Acta 114:147–154Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Jones P (2000) Analyst 125:803–806Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biotoxins and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture TechnologyAlexander Technological Educational Institute of ThessalonikiN. MoudaniaGreece

Personalised recommendations