Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 20, pp 6479–6487 | Cite as

Molecularly imprinted polymers as synthetic receptors for the QCM-D-based detection of l-nicotine in diluted saliva and urine samples

  • J. Alenus
  • A. Ethirajan
  • F. Horemans
  • A. Weustenraed
  • P. Csipai
  • J. Gruber
  • M. Peeters
  • T. J. Cleij
  • P. Wagner
Research Paper

Abstract

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic receptors that are able to specifically bind their target molecules in complex samples, making them a versatile tool in biosensor technology. The combination of MIPs as a recognition element with quartz crystal microbalances (QCM-D with dissipation monitoring) gives a straightforward and sensitive device, which can simultaneously measure frequency and dissipation changes. In this work, bulk-polymerized l-nicotine MIPs were used to test the feasibility of l-nicotine detection in saliva and urine samples. First, l-nicotine-spiked saliva and urine were measured after dilution in demineralized water and 0.1× phosphate-buffered saline solution for proof-of-concept purposes. l-nicotine could indeed be detected specifically in the biologically relevant micromolar concentration range. After successfully testing on spiked samples, saliva was analyzed, which was collected during chewing of either nicotine tablets with different concentrations or of smokeless tobacco. The MIPs in combination with QCM-D were able to distinguish clearly between these samples: This proves the functioning of the concept with saliva, which mediates the oral uptake of nicotine as an alternative to the consumption of cigarettes.

Figure

Schematics of the sample-preparation procedure for l-nicotine spiked saliva- and urine samples with various concentration levels

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Keywords

Molecularly imprinted polymers l-nicotine Nicotine tablets Smokeless tobacco Quartz crystal microbalance Dissipation monitoring 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by an IMEC Ph.D. Fellowship (J. Alenus), by the Life-Science Initiative of the Province of Limburg (M. Peeters), and by the Internationalization Program of Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (P. Csipai). The authors also would like to thank H. Penxten, J. Soogen, C. Willems, and J. Baccus cordially for technical assistance.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Alenus
    • 1
  • A. Ethirajan
    • 1
  • F. Horemans
    • 1
  • A. Weustenraed
    • 1
  • P. Csipai
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Gruber
    • 2
  • M. Peeters
    • 1
    • 3
  • T. J. Cleij
    • 1
  • P. Wagner
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Materials Research (IMO)Hasselt UniversityDiepenbeekBelgium
  2. 2.Instituto de QuímicaUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Division IMOMECIMECDiepenbeekBelgium

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