Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 24, pp 7829–7839 | Cite as

Rapid and simple method for determination of hexabromocyclododecanes and other LC–MS–MS-amenable brominated flame retardants in fish

  • Darina Lankova
  • Michala Kockovska
  • Ondrej Lacina
  • Kamila Kalachova
  • Jana Pulkrabova
  • Jana Hajslova
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Rapid Detection in Food and Feed


In this study, a novel analytical approach for simultaneous determination of hexabromocyclododecane isomers (HBCDs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), three brominated phenols, and four hydroxylated derivatives of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) was developed and validated for muscle tissue of both lean and fatty fish. The rapid, simple, and high-throughput sample-preparation procedure was based on acetonitrile extraction then purification by dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) with a combination of C18 and primary–secondary amine (PSA) sorbents. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS–MS) was used for identification and quantification of the analytes. Method recovery for both matrices ranged from 80 to 115 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) <13 % for all analytes. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range 0.1–1 μg kg−1 wet weight. The validated method was used for analysis of brominated compounds in 32 fish and five bivalve samples collected from different European markets within the monitoring survey organized in the framework of the CONffIDENCE project. Of the 12 targeted analytes, only α-HBCD, 2,4-dibromophenol (2,4-DBP), and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) were quantified in the samples. α-HBCD was found in six fish samples (herring and mackerel) in the range of 0.8–2.5 μg kg−1 wet weight. 2,4-DBP and 2,4,6-TBP were found in three blue mussel samples in the range of 19.6–43.5 and 2.3–7.5 μg kg−1 wet weight, respectively.


HBCDs TBBPA OH-PBDEs Brominated phenols Fish LC–MS–MS 



This study was funded by the FP7 European project CONffIDENCE “Contaminants in food and feed: inexpensive detection for control of exposure” (no. 211326) and by the projects MSM 6046137305 and IDS 7E08068 supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic.

Supplementary material

216_2013_7076_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (486 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 486 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darina Lankova
    • 1
  • Michala Kockovska
    • 1
  • Ondrej Lacina
    • 1
  • Kamila Kalachova
    • 1
  • Jana Pulkrabova
    • 1
  • Jana Hajslova
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Analysis and Nutrition, Faculty of Food and Biochemical TechnologyInstitute of Chemical TechnologyPragueCzech Republic

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