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Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 18, pp 6117–6129 | Cite as

Analysis of esterified and nonesterified fatty acids in serum from obese individuals after intake of breakfasts prepared with oils heated at frying temperature

  • M. I. Orozco-Solano
  • F. Priego-Capote
  • M. D. Luque de CastroEmail author
Research Paper

Abstract

In this study, levels of esterified and nonesterified fatty acids (EFAs and NEFAs, respectively) were compared in obese individuals (body mass index between 30 and 47 kg m–2) in basal state and after intake of four different breakfasts prepared with oils heated at frying temperature. The target oils were three sunflower oils—pure, enriched with dimethylsiloxane (400 μg mL–1) as lipophilic oxidation inhibitor, and enriched with phenolic compounds (400 μg mL–1) as hydrophilic oxidation inhibitors—and virgin olive oil with a natural content of phenolic compounds of 400 μg mL–1. The intake of breakfasts was randomized to avoid trends associated to this variability source. EFAs and NEFAs were subjected to a sequential derivatization step for independent gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of both fractions of metabolites in human serum. Derivatization was assisted by ultrasonic energy to accelerate the reaction kinetics, as required for high-throughput analysis. Statistical analysis supported on univariate (multifactor ANOVA) and multivariate approaches (principal component analysis and partial least squares–discriminant analysis) allowed identification of the main variability sources and also discriminating between individuals after intake of each breakfast. Individuals’ samples after intake of breakfasts prepared with virgin olive oil were clearly separated from those who ingested the remaining breakfasts. The main compounds contributing to discrimination were omega-3 and omega-6 EFAs with special emphasis on arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. These two polyunsaturated fatty acids are the precursors of eicosanoid metabolites, which are of vital importance as they play important roles in inflammation and in the pathogenesis of vascular and malignant diseases as cancer.

Keywords

Deep frying Dietary intervention Serum Esterified fatty acids Nonesterified fatty acids Targeted nutrimetabolomics Principal components analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) and European FEDER program are thanked for financial support through project CTQ2009-07430. F.P.C. is also grateful to the MICINN for a Ramón y Cajal contract (RYC-2009-03921).

Supplementary material

216_2013_7004_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (224 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 223 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. I. Orozco-Solano
    • 1
    • 2
  • F. Priego-Capote
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. D. Luque de Castro
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Annex Marie Curie Building, Campus of RabanalesUniversity of CórdobaCórdobaSpain
  2. 2.Institute of Biomedical Research Maimónides (IMIBIC), Reina Sofía HospitalUniversity of CórdobaCórdobaSpain

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