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Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 24, pp 7597–7613 | Cite as

Bioanalytical separation and preconcentration using ionic liquids

  • Leticia B. Escudero
  • Alexander Castro Grijalba
  • Estefanía M. Martinis
  • Rodolfo G. WuilloudEmail author
Review

Abstract

Ionic liquids (ILs) are novel solvents that display a number of unique properties, such as negligible vapor pressure, thermal stability (even at high temperatures), favorable viscosity, and miscibility with water and organic solvents. These properties make them attractive alternatives to environmentally unfriendly solvents that produce volatile organic compounds. In this article, a critical review of state-of-the-art developments in the use of ILs for the separation and preconcentration of bioanalytes in biological samples is presented. Special attention is paid to the determination of various organic and inorganic analytes—including contaminants (e.g., pesticides, nicotine, opioids, gold, arsenic, lead, etc.) and functional biomolecules (e.g., testosterone, vitamin B12, hemoglobin)—in urine, blood, saliva, hair, and nail samples. A brief introduction to modern microextraction techniques based on ILs, such as dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) and single-drop microextraction (SDME), is provided. A comparison of IL-based methods in terms of their limits of detection and environmental compatibilities is also made. Finally, critical issues and challenges that have arisen from the use of ILs in separation and preconcentration techniques are also discussed.

Figure

The roles and applications of ionic liquids in biological analysis

Keywords

Ionic liquids Microextraction Separation Preconcentration Biological samples 

Abbreviations

Extraction techniques

ATPS

Aqueous two-phase system

CV-ILAHS-SDME

Cold vapor ionic-liquid-assisted headspace single-drop microextraction

CVG

Cold vapor generation

cycle-flow SDME

Cycle-flow single-drop microextraction

DI-SDME

Directly immersed in a stirred solution single drop microextraction

DLLME

Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

dLPME

Dynamic liquid-phase microextraction

FI-AFS

Flow-injection atomic fluorescence spectrometry

HF-LPME

Hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction

HS-SDME

Headspace single-drop microextraction

LLE

Liquid–liquid extraction

LLME

Liquid–liquid microextraction

LPME

Liquid-phase microextraction

MA-DLLME

Microwave-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

SBSE

Stir-bar sorptive extraction

SDME

Single-drop microextraction

SDS-PAGE

Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

SI-DLLME

Sequential injection dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

SPE

Solid-phase extraction

SPME

Solid-phase microextraction

TA-DLLME

Temperature-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

UA-DLLME

Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

Detection technique

CE-DAD

Capillary electrophoresis–diode array detector

CV-AAS

Cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

ETAAS

Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

ETV-ICP-MS

Electrothermal vaporization–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry

FAAS

Flame atomic absorption spectrometry

GC

Gas chromatography

GC-MS

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

MALDI

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization

Ionic liquids

[C4mim][BF4]

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

[C6mim][BF4]

1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

[C4mim] [CF3SO3]-

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate

[C2mim] [(CF3SO3)2 N]

1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)]imide

[C8mim] [(CF3SO3)2 N]

1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide

[C4mim][Cl]

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

[C6mim][Cl]

1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

[C4mim][OH]

1-Butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hydroxide

[C4mim][PF6]

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

[C6mim][PF6]

1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

[C8mim][PF6]

1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

[C4mpd][Br]

1-Butyl-3-methylpyridinium bromide

[C4mprd][Br]

1-Butyl-3-methylpyrrolidinium bromide

[C4tmsim][PF6]

1-Butyl-3-trimethylsilylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

CYPHOS® IL 101

Trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride

[EC2mim] [(CF3SO2)2 N]

1-Ethoxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)]imide

[Nmim][Cl]

N-methylimidazolium chloride

[C1oim][BF4]

1-Methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

[PPmim][PF6]

N,N-bis[2-methylbutyl]imidazolium hexafluorophosphate

(PY BS)3PW12O40

Keggin-based ionic liquid

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (FONCYT) (PICT-BID), and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (Argentina).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leticia B. Escudero
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alexander Castro Grijalba
    • 1
    • 2
  • Estefanía M. Martinis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rodolfo G. Wuilloud
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Research and Development (QUIANID), Instituto de Ciencias BásicasUniversidad Nacional de CuyoMendozaArgentina
  2. 2.Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos AiresArgentina

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