Uptake and release kinetics of 22 polar organic chemicals in the Chemcatcher passive sampler
- 756 Downloads
The Chemcatcher passive sampler, which uses Empore™ disks as sampling phase, is frequently used to monitor polar organic chemicals in river water and effluents. Uptake kinetics need to be quantified to calculate time-weighted average concentrations from Chemcatcher field deployments. Information on release kinetics is needed if performance reference compounds (PRCs) are used to quantify the influence of environmental conditions on the uptake. In a series of uptake and elimination experiments, we used Empore™ SDB disks (poly(styrenedivinylbenzene) copolymer modified with sulfonic acid groups) as a sampling phase and 22 compounds with a logK ow (octanol–water partitioning coefficient) range from −2.6 to 3.8. Uptake experiments were conducted in river water or tap water and lasted up to 25 days. Only 1 of 22 compounds (sulfamethoxazole) approached equilibrium in the uptake trials. Other compounds showed continuing non-linear uptake, even after 25 days. All compounds could be released from SDB disks, and desorption was proportionally higher in disks loaded for shorter periods. Desorption showed two-phase characteristics, and desorption was proportionally higher for passively sorbed compounds compared to actively loaded compounds (active loading was performed by pulling spiked river water over SDB disks using vacuum). We hypothesise that the two-phase kinetics and better retention of actively loaded compounds—and compounds loaded for a longer period—may be caused by slow diffusion of chemicals within the polymer. As sorption and desorption did not show isotropic kinetics, it is not possible to develop robust PRCs for adsorbent material like SDB disks.
KeywordsPassive sampling Chemcatcher POCIS Pharmaceuticals Biocides
The study was funded by SNF project 200021–121738.
- 1.Greenwood R, Mills GA, Vrana B (2007) Passive sampling techniques in environmental monitoring. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- 2.Huckins JN, Petty JD, Booij K (2006) Monitors of organic chemicals in the environment: semipermeable membrane devices. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 5.European Commission (2008) Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union (2008) Environmental Quality Standards in the Field of Water Policy, Amending and Subsequently Repealing Council Directives 82/176/EEC, 83/513/EEC, 84/156/EEC, 84/491/EEC, 86/280/EEC and Amending Directive 2000/60/EC Official Journal of the European Union (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:348:0084:0097:EN:PDF)
- 6.European Commission (2012) Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and the Council amending Directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC as regards priority substances in the field of water policy. vol http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-dangersub/pdf/com_2011_876.pdf
- 13.Vrana B, Vermeirssen ELM, Allan IJ, Kohoutek J, Kennedy K, Mills GA, Greenwood R (2010) Passive sampling of emerging pollutants in the aquatic environment: state of the art and perspectives—a position paper of the expert group of the NORMAN network of reference laboratories for monitoring of emerging environmental pollutantsGoogle Scholar
- 16.Mazzella N, Lissalde S, Moreira S, Fo D, Mazellier P, Huckins JN (2010) Evaluation of the use of performance reference compounds in an Oasis-HLB adsorbent based passive sampler for improving water concentration estimates of polar herbicides in freshwater. Environ Sci Technol 44:1713–1719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Camilleri J, Morin N, Miège C, Coquery M, Cren-Olivé C (2012) Determination of the uptake and release rates of multifamilies of endocrine disruptor compounds on the polar C18 Chemcatcher. Three potential performance reference compounds to monitor polar pollutants in surface water by integrative sampling. J Chromatogr 1237:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Hansch C, Leo A, Hoekman D (1995) Exploring QSAR. Hydrophobic, Electronic and Steric Constants. ACS Professional Reference Book. American Chemical Society, WashingtonGoogle Scholar